Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Pathophysiology

Please respond concisely and intelligently to the following post:

A medication used to correct hypomagnesemia depends on the degree of deficiency and the patient's clinical symptoms and signs. There are different therapy forms to treat it such as oral magnesium oxide for mild symptoms, or intravenous magnesium sulfate for patients with severe symptoms.

Mechanism of action for magnesium oxide: Mineral; cofactor in many enzymatic reactions and essential for various metabolic functions such as phosphate transfer, muscle contraction, and nerve conduction.

Side effects: Diarrhea with excessive dose, gastrointestinal irritation

Drug interactions: atazanavir, baloxavir marboxil, demeclocycline, dolutegravir, doxycycline, eltrombopag, minocycline, oxytetracycline, ponatinib, tetracycline, acalabrutinib, bictegravir, bosutinib, budesonide, cabotegravir, chloroquine, ciprofloxacin, crizotinib, dabrafenib, deferiprone, delafloxacin, elvitegravir, elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir DF, fleroxacin, gefitinib, Gemifloxacin, ledipasvir/sofosbuvir, levofloxacin, lisdexamfetamine, methylphenidate, moxifloxacin, neratinib, nilotinib, ofloxacin, omadacycline, penicillamine, pexidartinib, rilpivirine, riociguat, sarecycline, sodium sulfate/?magnesium sulfate/potassium chloride, sodium sulfate/potassium sulfate/magnesium sulfate, sofosbuvir/velpatasvir, vismodegib.

 Mechanism of action for magnesium sulfate:

It depresses the central nervous system (CNS), blocks peripheral neuromuscular transmission, produces anticonvulsant effects; decreases amount of acetylcholine released at end-plate by motor nerve impulse. It slows the rate of SA node impulse formation in the myocardium and prolongs conduction time. It promotes movement of calcium, potassium, and sodium in and out of cells and stabilizes excitable membranes. It promotes osmotic retention of fluid in colon, causing distention and increased peristaltic activity, which subsequently results in bowel evacuation.

Side effects include: Circulatory collapse, respiratory paralysis, hypothermia, pulmonary edema, depressed reflexes, hypotension, flushing, drowsiness, depressed cardiac function, diaphoresis, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, hyperkalemia, and visual changes.

Drug interactions include: baloxavir, marboxil, demeclocycline, doxycycline, eltrombopag, minocycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline atracurium, ciprofloxacin, cisatracurium, delafloxacin, dichlorphenamide, fleroxacin, Gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, nifedipine, ofloxacin, onabotulinumtoxinA, pancuronium, penicillamine, rapacuronium, rilpivirine, rimabotulinumtoxinB, rocuronium, sodium polystyrene sulfonate, succinylcholine, and vecuronium.

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