Questions from Chapter 13-The Molecular Basis of Inheritance
21. ___ Bacteriophages are viruses that attack bacteria.
22. ___ In DNA the base A always pairs with the base G and the base C always pairs with the base T.
23. ___ Chargaff’s rule states that in DNA the amount of the base A is always equal in amount to the base T and the amount of the base G is always equal in amount to the base C. In other words, A=T and G=C.
24. ___ In DNA the 5’ end of the molecule always has an OH attached to it and the 3’ of the molecule always has a phosphate attached to it.
25. ___ If one side of the DNA molecule has the base sequence ATTGGCTTA then the other side must have the base sequence TAACCGAAT
26. ___ When DNA replicates itself we have what is called the leading strand and the lagging strand. The leading strand is laid down discontinuously as segments known as Okazaki fragments and the lagging strand is laid down continuously and nonstop.
27. ___ Genetic engineering refers to the fact we can insert genes from one organism into another organism and then that organism will begin to make the proteins that the gene codes for.
28. PCR is a technique that enables us to make many copies of DNA from just a small amount of DNA.
Questions from Chapter 14. Gene Expression: From Gene to Protein
29.___ The term Transcription means mRNA>>>Ribosome>>>Protein and the term Translation means DNA>>> mRNA.
30. ___ Look at the genetic code (codon table) in your text. The codons UCG and AGG both code for Serine.
31. ___ If one strand of the DNA molecule has the sequence AAA then the tRNA should also have the sequence AAA
32. ___ In 1902 the British physician Archibald Garrod postulated that the symptoms of an inherited disease reflect the inability to make a particular enzyme.
33. ___ The central dogma (rule) of protein synthesis can be summarized by the following simple diagram: DNA>>RNA>>Protein
34. ___ Introns are segments of DNA that do not code for amino acids.
35. ___ Exons are segments of DNA that do code for amino acids.
36. ___ Ribosomes are that part of the cell where translation of the genetic code takes place.
37. ___ Ribosomes are composed of 2 parts: The large subunit and the small subunit.
38. ___ If a particular sequence of mRNA is reading GGC but the first base (G) gets damaged and is replaced by an A then the changed code will now code for the amino acid Serine.
39. ___ In the inherited disease sickle cell anemia (also called sickle cell disease) the amino acid valine has replaced the amino acid glutamic acid causing the red blood cells to take on a sickle shape due to the protein hemoglobin now being defective.
40. ___ Changes in the original sequence of a DNA molecule are known as Mutations.