Discuss a theoretical model of cultural competency that is complementary to your nursing philosophy of patient care.


Module X will include discussion on the importance of culture in clinical practice and explore ways to apply theoretical models to patient care. This module will also highlight the influence of race and racial relations on the development of the nursing profession. Vulnerable populations will be defined along with major challenges faced by these populations

Cultural diversity is part of our life in America today and is a word that has become one of the most often used words of our time. The United States has become a more culturally diverse population, meaning that the residents are made up of people from many races, countries, and cultural backgrounds. Cultural diversity is given much media attention and is also found permeating the literature almost daily.


Culture has many definitions, some describe culture as the sum total of socially inherited characteristics of a human group that comprises everything which one generation can tell, convey, or hand down to the next. Others define culture as the sum of beliefs, practices, habits, likes, dislikes, norms, customs, rituals, and so forth that we learned from our families during the years of socialization. Regardless of the definition one can see that these definitions are numerous, and although similar, slightly different.

Culture is learned in a family and social community and is passed down from generation to generation. Culture determines how we think and do, and what we believe both consciously and unconsciously. The Office of Minority Health defines culture as “the thoughts, communications, actions, customs, beliefs, values, and institutions of racial, ethnic, religious, or social groups” (Office of Minority Health, 2001. p. 131).

Healthcare providers are socialized into the culture of our profession. This socialization teaches us beliefs, practices, habits, likes, dislikes, norms, rituals, and issues that encompass a given culture. The healthcare system as we know it is in crisis. There are cultural and economic gaps between health care providers and patients leading to inadequate care. Health care providers in this country strictly adhere to the western system of health care delivery and normally do not approve or endorse any other methods of prevention or treatment. Healthcare providers in the U. S. generally fail to use any source of medication or treatment that is not based on evidence based practice. How then can we meet the needs of the client in this diverse world?

As we answer this question we must explore the culture of the healthcare provider. Although the primary objective of a health system is to emphasize individual health and to maximize the health of the population, this is not always the case. We don’t always have an extensive view of what is inclusive and exclusive to the health system. Health care cost is a significant issue and one that all people must deal with, uninsured or insured alike. Aside from cost, there are other barriers to health care that must addressed in order for the client to utilize the healthcare system to its maximum potential.

In our growing multicultural world, with the disparities in the health of people from culturally diverse backgrounds, we are challenged to provide culturally competent care to this large population. Dr. Madeleine M. Leininger and nurses from around the world have worked to establish transcultural nursing as part of formal academic education and practice.  Dr. Leininger is considered the founder of the theory of transcultural nursing. Her first theory originated in the 1950’s and was further expanded in 1995. Finally, in 2002 she expanded this theory again to explain theory-based research and practice through the concepts of transcultural theory.  Transcultural nursing theory is also known as Culture Care theory and this theoretical framework is depicted in Leininger’s model called the Sunrise Model.

Transcultural nursing focuses on worldwide cultures and cultural caring, health, and nursing phenomena. This theory has now developed as a discipline in nursing. Dr. Leininger offered the first course in transcultural nursing in 1966 at the University of Colorado (Dayer-Berenson, 2011).  According to Leininger, transcultural nursing developed in response to nurses having increased exposure to diverse groups of patients. Because of the changing demographics in the U. S., there was an increased exposure to diversity in nursing care, which is referred to as universal phenomenon that transcends cultural boundaries. It is critical for nurses to develop and understand how to work within a diverse cultural atmosphere.

As the U.S. population becomes more culturally diverse greater challenges and barriers in accessing health care services will be uncovered in certain population groups. The groups most affected are: racial/ethnic minorities, homeless, women, children, those living in rural areas, migrants, and those living with HIV/AIDS (Denisco & Burke, 2016).   There currently are gaps in services between these populations groups and the rest of the population.  As healthcare providers in this diverse country, we must find solutions for these inconsistencies in healthcare services among these vulnerable populations.



  • Define transcultural nursing.
  • Define cultural competence.
  • Discuss various cultural nursing theories.
  • Define diversity.
  • Discuss the impact of diversity on healthcare disparities.
  • Discuss existing and future health disparities.
  • Describe the racial and ethical disparities in health status.
  • Identify ways to improve access to health care in rural America.



Denisco (2021) Chapters 24, & 25


Module X
Discussion 1
  1. Discuss a theoretical model of cultural competency that is complementary to your nursing philosophy of patient care.

Please post your initial response by Wednesday at midnight. Respond to one student from Wednesday at midnight to Sunday at midnight. All responses must be a minimum of 150 words, scholarly written, APA formatted, and referenced. A minimum of 2 references, other than your text, is required. Please refer to grading rubric for online discussion.

Module X Discussion

Discussion posts should follow criteria for the Rubric for Online Discussions.

Special Guidance on APA formatting in Discussion Posts
APA formatting is required in discussion posts with the following two exceptions (due to limitations with the text editor in LIVE):  double line space and indent 1/2 inch from the left margin. Discussion posts will NOT be evaluated on those two formatting requirements. All other APA formatting guidelines should be followed. For example, in-text citations must be formatted with the appropriate information and in the correct sequence (Author, year), reference list entries must include all appropriate information following  guidelines for capitalization, italics, and be in the correct sequence. Refer to the APA Publication Manual 7th ed. for each source type’s specific requirements. Please let your instructor know if you have any questions.


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