First Civilizations

The Ancient Near East: First Civilizations

  1. How did the Neolithic Revolution change human patterns of living?
    1. Farming and animal husbandry led to settled communities that gradually developed into cities
    2. Tribal communities became increasing more nomadic and discovered new lands
    3. Women were given greater responsibility which led to female participation in tribal governing councils
    4. Men formed armies and created the first great empires
  1. What did Mesopotamia and Egypt contribute to the continued development of civilization?
    1. Sewers, aqueducts, philosophy, and paved roads
    2. Tribal rule, marriage by contract, the introduction of reason
    3. Writing, temple building, organized religion, organized governance
    4. Theatre, gladiatorial games, philosophy, and trial by jury

The Hebrews

  1. What was the most influential legacy of the Hebrews of Israel and Judah?
    1. A belief in heaven
    2. Spiritual development that influenced Christianity and Islam
    3. Ongoing persecution of Jews called pogroms
    4. They rejection of the god Yahweh in favor of the stronger and more influential god Ba’al
  1. Why did many conquered Near Eastern people express gratitude for being made subjects of the Great Kings of Persia
    1. While the Assyrians were hated, conquered peoples under Persian rulers were allowed to keep their own religions, customs, and methods of doing business
    2. Because the Persians saved them from the brutality of the Assyrians
    3. Because they had always considered themselves part of the Persian Empire
    4. Because they worshipped the same gods

The Greeks

  1. Who was Homer and why was he important to education after the collapse of Mycenaean civilization?
    1. Homer was the king of Mycenae who was responsible for conquering Troy His written plays provided the basis for education during the Dark Age because they offered advice on militaristic training of young men
    2. Homer was a poet who made use of oral tradition to compose the Iliad and the Odyssey, stories of the Trojan war and its aftermath that were important later Greeks as a means of teaching the aristocratic values of honor and courage
    3. Homer was a slave taken captive by Sparta His death at the hands of the Spartiate’s led to a slave uprising led by Spartacus
    4. Homer was a Roman general who persecuted Jews during the time of Jesus His actions, which led to the collapse of Mycenae, were used to warn against prejudice
  1. How did the major city-states of Athens and Sparta differ?
    1. Athens was a militaristic Oligarchy while Sparta became known for its democratic institutions
    2. Athens was the first city-state to adopt monotheism while Sparta remained a polytheistic state
    3. Sparta was open to all newcomers while Athens required proof of parentage in order to become a citizen of Athens
    4. Sparta was a militaristic Oligarchy while Athens became known for its democratic institutions
  1. Which Greek contributions proved crucial to the foundation of Western civilization?
    1. Greek philosophy provided the fountainhead of Western culture, while Greek notions of harmony, proportion, and beauty remained for centuries the touchstones for Western Art and Architecture
    2. Greek engineering provided the skills that led to their dominance of Europe The Greek language became the foundation for future generations in Europe
    3. The Greeks were the first to practice monotheism This eventually led to the foundation of Christianity in Europe
    4. Greek oligarchies became the model for government for all future generations

The Hellenistic World

  1. How was Alexander the Great able to amass his empire?
    1. Alexander portrayed extensive military ineptitude on the battlefield
    2. Alexander imposed strict Greek culture on the people he vanquished.
    3. Alexander was an outstanding military leader who demonstrated superb tactical skills and who also maintained a personal interest in his troops
    4. Alexander was a tyrant who ruled over his armies through extreme fear and tyranny
  1. What attributes distinguished the Greek Hellenistic Period from the Greek Hellenic Period?
    1. The Hellenistic period witnessed the invention of philosophy and philosophical works such as Plato’s Republic – the earliest systematic treatment of political philosophy
    2. Greeks spread their culture in conquered territories but were also influenced by eastern ways, which resulted in a cultural fusion
    3. The Hellenistic period saw the pre-Socratics as philosophy’s greatest practitioners
    4. The Hellenic period is the designation given to the period after the rise of Alexander the Great

The Roman Republic

  1. What was the outcome of the Struggle of the Orders?
    1. Plebeians took full control of the Senate by subordinating the patrician aristocracy.
    2. Senators must be chosen only from the Plebeian population.
    3. Rome developed the political institutions of a republic ruled by an aristocratic oligarchy
    4. All members of the patrician class were exiled from Rome
  1. What were the Twelve Tables?
    1. Greek dining clubs
    2. Rome’s early laws which constituted civil law for Romans
    3. The first twelve books of Roman history
    4. Alexander’s book of conquests

The Roman Empire

  1. What did the Emperor Augustus do to create a new order that began the Roman Empire?
  1. He created the Imperial Cult, after which he declared himself divine, forcing the Senate to worship him as a god.
  2. He presented himself as an ordinary citizen while exercising more and more power by holding office that enabled him to propose laws and veto any item of public business
  3. He revoked the Laws of the Twelve Tables, minimizing political input from the Senate.
  4. He gave the Visigoths permission to enter Rome in exchange for fighting with Rome against the Huns
  1. Why was the period following the Julio-Claudian dynasty referred to as the era of the Five Good Emperors?
    1. The succession problem exemplified during the Julio-Claudian dynasty was resolved by adopting capable leaders instead of passing rule on through inheritance.
    2. Rome suffered a series of crises such as civil war, natural disaster and debasement of coinage; phenomena from which it could never recover.
    3. Germanic tribes infiltrated Roman territory bringing about the fall of the Roman Empire by placing a barbarian king on the Roman throne.
    4. The period was the low point in Roman imperial history and was marked by emperors who operated under greed and self-ambition.
  1. What Roman achievements were fundamental to the development of Western civilization?
    1. The introduction of philosophy, a focus on reason over superstition, the concept of tribal citizenship and religion
    2. The development of math, writing, language, and temple building
    3. Irrigation, monotheism, rejection of slavery, government by tribal council
    4. Languages, the practice of impartial judgement and trial by jury (Roman law), Roman political structures and administrative practices and great engineering and building projects (cement, aqueducts, sewers, etc.)

Late Antiquity and the Emergence of the Medieval World

  1. Why is Constantine often referred to as the 13th Disciple?
    1. Constantine was a sworn enemy of the Christian faith.
    2. Constantine was responsible for the Great Persecution, during which many Christians were sentenced to death.
    3. Besides making Christianity legal with the Edict of Milan, Constantine settled the dispute between contradictory interpretations of Christianity by calling the Council of Nicaea, the first ecumenical council of the church.
    4. Constantine declared himself a living incarnation of the messiah Jesus Christ
  1. As the Western Roman Empire slowly disintegrated, which of the following Germanic kingdoms emerged to take its place?
    1. The Huns and Mongols settled in the Western half of the Roman Empire by 476 C.E.
    2. The Assyrians and the Persians settled in the Western half of the Roman Empire by 476 C.E.
    3. The Aryans, Moors, and Vikings settled in the Western half of the Roman Empire by 476 C.E.
    4. The Franks, Ostrogoths & Visigoths, Vandals, Lombard and Anglo-Saxon tribes settled in parts of the Roman Empire after 476 C.E.
  1. Which of the following empires were not immediate heirs of the Roman Empire?
    1. The Byzantium Empire.
    2. The Manchus of China.
    3. The Islamic Empire.
    4. The Christian German States of the west

European Civilization in the Early Middle Ages

  1. What word best describes the new political and military arrangement by which the Carolingian Empire was governed?
    1. Millenarianism, it describes Charlemagne’s militaristic aims
    2. Hellenism, it describes the intellectual renaissance of the period
    3. Feudalism, it describes the emerging world of lords and vassalage
    4. Republicanism, it describes the form of governance inherited from the Romans
  1. What important political repercussions did the Viking invasions play in the

in the history of medieval Europe?

    1. They established an enduring political system where power was vested in the hands of female tribal leaders
    2. They caused local populations to turn to local aristocrats for protection This gradually developed a new political and military order
    3. They adopted Divine Right of Kings, creating absolute monarchy in Norway.
    4. The Viking invasions had little influence in the way political repercussions on the history of medieval Europe
  1. What was the intellectual and cultural contribution of Islam?
    1. The Muslims created a brilliant urban culture at a time when Western Europe was predominantly a rural world of farming villages Among their many contributions was the creation of libraries, the study of geography and advances in medicine
    2. The Muslims introduced philosophy, the study of science, drama and theater as a form of education and entertainment
    3. The Muslims introduced the concept of monotheism, a polytheistic religion that supports the idea of many gods This idea influenced many Middle Eastern cultures in the centuries that followed
    4. The Muslims created a patriarchal system of governance that became the model for the foundation of Europe Charlemagne adopted the Muslim system in shaping his governance policies for Francia

The Recovery and Growth of European society in the High Middle Ages

  1. What new agricultural practices arose in the High Middle Ages?
    1. A shift from a two-field system to a the three-field system of crop rotation, which resulted in greater agricultural output
    2. The discovery of irrigation which necessitated farming near rivers
    3. New forms of chemical fertilization which made crop rotation unnecessary
    4. The development of the tractor, which cut plowing time in half
  1. What developments contributed to the revival of trade during the High Middle Ages?
    1. Phoenician merchant ships reintroduced the written word during trading stops. This led to greater record-keeping and ultimately to efficient trading system copied from the Phoenicians.
    2. Christian missionaries utilized the knowledge acquired during their missions abroad to reintroduce trade to the West. This knowledge was acquired primarily from Chinese traders.
    3. The development of trading fairs became the largest commercial marketplace in western Europe. This and other practices contributed to a Commercial Revolution which led to the growth of capitalism, an economic system in which commerce and industry are controlled by private owners who invest in trade and goods in order to make profits.
    4. Contact between Japan and the West via the Silk Road led the Mongols to introduce many eastern trading practices into Europe. These trading skills eventually led to a commercial industry that spread across Europe.

The Rise of Kingdoms and the growth of Church Power

  1. What was the Investiture Controversy and what effect did it have on the church and Germany?
    1. A dispute between the king and the pope over the king’s right to invest (install) prelates (a high-ranking member of the clergy). This dispute led to ongoing state-church conflict throughout Germany
    2. A dispute between the Pope in Rome and the Patriarch of Constantinople over who has the right to install prelates (a high-ranking member of the clergy.) This dispute led to the Great Schism between the two branches of Christianity.
    3. A dispute between two emperors, the Emperor of the West and the Emperor of the East, both of whom claimed the right to install prelates (a high-ranking member of the clergy.) This dispute led to the permanent division of east and west.
    4. A dispute between the pope and high-ranking members of the Catholic clergy over who had the right to who has the right to install prelates (a high-ranking member of the clergy.) This dispute led to ongoing struggles within the Church hierarchy.
  1. How did the spiritual renewal of the Middle Ages give rise to the Crusades and what was the legacy of the Crusades?
    1. Spiritual renewal gave rise to a religious revival that helped improve church attendance, but only in France where it was required.
    2. Spiritual renewal combined Christianity and Islam into a single dominant faith.
    3. Spiritual renewal gave rise to the “holy warrior “men who killed for God, thereby creating an animosity between Christians and Muslims that still has repercussions to this day.
    4. Spiritual renewal that caused a decrease in Church attendance as worshipping God in solitude became the norm.

The Middle Ages” Crisis and Disintegration in the Fourteenth Century

  1. What impact did the Black Death have on the society and economy of Europe?
    1. The devastation caused by the loss of over 50% of the population led to a subdued, docile populace which contributed to an increase in serfdom
    2. The Church gained greater authority over the people because the majority believed the Black Death was a punishment from God for their original sin
    3. Jews were accused of poisoning wells an eating Christian babies in order to bring about the end of days and the Second Coming of Christ.
    4. Economic crisis, and social upheaval, including decline in trade and industry, bank failures, and peasant revolts which pitted the upper classes against the lower classes
  1. Why did the authority and prestige of the papacy decline in the fourteenth century?
    1. A conflict between the Roman Catholic Pope and the Eastern Orthodox Patriarch led to a war that split Roman Catholic territory into divided sectors. Many Western countries sided with the views of the Patriarch.
    2. War between Pope Gregory the Great and Henry IV broke out in Europe, which caused those loyal to each side to disengage. The public dispute undermined the authority of the Church.
    3. A conflict between Pope Boniface VIII and Philip IV of France led to a loss of papal power and the removal of the papacy from Rome to Avignon France. The absence of popes from Rome led to the spectacle of two popes condemning the other as the anti-Christ and excommunicating the other’s followers.
    4. King Henry VIII’s desire to have his marriage annulled and Pope Alexander IV’s refusal to accommodate the king’s demands led to a conflict which undermined the authority of the Church in France. This caused a split between church and state which left the Church in a weakened position of authority.

Recovery and Rebirth: The Age of the Renaissance

  1. How did Machiavelli’s works deal with politics and questions of morality in leadership (how did it reflect the political realities of Renaissance Italy)?
    1. Machiavelli was the first to abandon morality as the basis for the analysis of political activity
    2. Machiavelli saw benevolence as essential in politics.
    3. Machiavelli was the first to see morality as the necessary component of political activity.
    4. Machiavelli believed that politics and religion must be integrated to rule successfully.
  1. What was Renaissance humanism?
    1. Renaissance humanism was a Greek invention that disappeared in the age of Alexander the Great. The philosophies that emerged during this time focused on the role of the gods in the gifting of special talents to those deemed worthy.
    2. Renaissance humanism was an intellectual movement based on the study of the classical literary works of Greece and Rome. The goal of humanists was to produce individuals of virtue and wisdom Civic humanism posited that the ideal citizen was not only an intellectual but also an active participant in the life of the state.
    3. Renaissance humanism was a movement that focused on the poor in society. It resulted from the religious divide between Protestants and Catholics in the 14th century, which first emerged as a disagreement over taxes.
    4. Renaissance humanism was a movement that sought to create a property-less society in which everyone shared equally. The idea was to educate everyone equally and to own equally all means of production.

Reformation and Religious Warfare in the Sixteenth Century

  1. How did the chief ideas of Christian Humanists differ from the ideas of the Protestant reformers?
    1. Christian humanists believed that reinterpreting the Bible was necessary in achieving spiritual salvation.
    2. Christian humanists believed that an emphasis on education would pave the way to inner piety.
    3. Christian humanists believed none of the Blessed Sacraments were essential to inner faith.
    4. Christian humanists believed that religion should be removed from society.
  1. Which of the following did not contribute to Martin Luther’s main disagreements with the Roman Catholic Church?
    1. The doctrine of justification, which mandated salvation through faith alone.
    2. The Bible should be held as the sole authority in religions affairs, which strongly opposed doctrine of papal infallibility.
    3. The pope does not have the authority to remit sins.
    4. Rites of indulgences are necessary for salvation.
  1. What role did religion play in the European wars of the sixteenth century?
    1. Religion led to war between the Irish and British because of the Baptist/Catholic divide.
    2. The religious divide that led to war was caused by the Medici family. They spearheaded a war in order to gain control over the Vatican.
    3. Religion led only to small regional contests between the Germanic states and France.
    4. The religious divide between Catholics and Protestants was instrumental in beginning a series of religious wars that were complicated by economic, social, and political forces.

Europe and the World: New Encounters

  1. What were the main features of the African slave trade?
    1. Africans were removed from their homes and forcibly shipped to plantations in the New World. During the next two centuries, the trade in slaves grew dramatically and became part of the triangular trade connecting Europe, Africa, and the American continents.
    2. Africans were not sold by rival tribes, but rather were captured and transported by Europeans. During the next two centuries, the trade in slaves grew only slowly but became part of the triangular trade connecting Europe, Africa, and the American continents.
    3. Africans volunteered themselves as slaves in order to pay off debt. Over time, endured servitude led to a growth in the slave trade. Triangular trade connected Europe, Africa, and the American continents.
    4. Africans were captured by slavers and sold to Europeans against their will, but eventually volunteered for indenture servitude to pay off personal debt. This did not lead to the triangular trade connecting Europe, Africa, and the American continents until the 19th century.

State Building and the Search for Order in the Seventeenth Century

  1. What was the main difference between French Absolutism and English Constitutionalism?
    1. In France, constitutionalism meant that the king had absolute power over foreign affairs while the parliament retained power over the purse.
    2. In England, absolute monarchy meant that the king had power over foreign affairs while the Parliament retained power over the purse.
    3. In France, absolute monarchy meant that the sovereign power or ultimate authority in the state rested in the hands of a king who claimed to rule by divine right.
    4. In both England and France, the king had absolute power in foreign affairs and the parliament retained the power of the purse.
  1. What were the main issues between king and Parliament in seventeenth-century England?
    1. Which authority had the right to declare war, raise taxes, make law, and mete out punishment
    2. Taxation without Parliament’s consent, arbitrary imprisonment, the quartering of soldiers in private houses, and the declaration of martial law in peacetime
    3. Censorship, state sponsored religion, slavery, and maritime law
    4. The right to vote, aristocratic privileges, the right to assembly, and the declaration of maritime law
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