Case study option 2
Overweight 5-year-old black boy with overweight parents who work full-time and the boy spends his time after school with his grandmother.

Week 3: Assessment Tools, Diagnostics, Growth, Measurement, and Nutrition in Adults and Children
Many experts predict that genetic testing for disease susceptibility is well on its way to becoming a routine part of clinical care. Yet many of the genetic tests currently being developed are, in the words of the World Health Organization (WHO), of “questionable prognostic value.”

—Leslie Pray, PhD

Obesity remains one of the most common chronic diseases in the United States. As a leading cause of United States mortality, morbidity, disability, healthcare utilization and healthcare costs, the high prevalence of obesity continues to strain the United States healthcare system (Obesity Society, 2016).  More than one-third (39.8%) of U.S. adults have obesity (CDC, 2018). The estimated annual medical cost of obesity in the U.S. was $147 billion in 2008 U.S. dollars; the medical costs for people who are obese were $1,429 higher than those of normal weight (CDC, 2018).

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the rate of childhood obesity has tripled in the past 30 years, with an estimated 13.7 million children and adolescents considered obese (CDC, 2018). When seeking insights about a patient’s overall health and nutritional state, body measurements can provide a valuable perspective. This is particularly important with pediatric patients. Measurements such as height and weight can provide clues to potential health problems and help predict how children will respond to illness. Nurses need to be proficient at using assessment tools, such as the Body Mass Index (BMI) and growth charts, in order to assess nutrition-related health risks and pediatric development while being sensitive to other factors that may affect these measures. Body Mass Index is also used as a predictor for measurement of adult weight and health.

Assessments are constantly being conducted on patients, but they may not provide useful information. In order to ensure that health assessments provide relevant data, nurses should familiarize themselves with test-specific factors that may affect the validity, reliability, and value of these tools.

This week, you will explore various assessment tools and diagnostic tests that are used to gather information about patients’ conditions. You will examine the validity and reliability of these tests and tools. You will also examine assessment techniques, health risks and concerns, and recommendations for care related to patient growth, weight, and nutrition.

Learning Objectives
Students will:

Evaluate validity and reliability of assessment tools and diagnostic tests
Analyze diversity considerations in health assessments
Apply concepts, theories, and principles related to examination techniques, functional assessments, and cultural and diversity awareness in health assessment
Apply assessment skills to collect patient health histories
Learning Resources
Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

Assignment 1: Case Study Assignment: Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children
When seeking to identify a patient’s health condition, advanced practice nurses can use a diverse selection of diagnostic tests and assessment tools; however, different factors affect the validity and reliability of the results produced by these tests or tools. Nurses must be aware of these factors in order to select the most appropriate test or tool and to accurately interpret the results.

Not only do these diagnostic tests affect adults, body measurements can provide a general picture of whether a child is receiving adequate nutrition or is at risk for health issues. These data, however, are just one aspect to be considered. Lifestyle, family history, and culture—among other factors—are also relevant. That said, gathering and communicating this information can be a delicate process.

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For this Assignment, you will consider the validity and reliability of different assessment tools and diagnostic tests. You will explore issues such as sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. You will also consider examples of children with various weight issues. You will explore how you could effectively gather information and encourage parents and caregivers to be proactive about their children’s health and weight.

To Prepare
Review this week’s Learning Resources and consider factors that impact the validity and reliability of various assessment tools and diagnostic tests. You also will review examples of pediatric patients and their families as it relates to BMI.
By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to one of the following Assignment options by your Instructor: Adult Assessment Tools or Diagnostic Tests (option 1), or Child Health Case (Option 2). Note: Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignments from your Instructor.
Search the Walden Library and credible sources for resources explaining the tool or test you were assigned. What is its purpose, how is it conducted, and what information does it gather?
Also, as you search the Walden library and credible sources, consider what the literature discusses regarding the validity, reliability, sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, ethical dilemmas, and controversies related to the test or tool.
I am assigned Assignment Option 2 (Child), consider what health issues and risks may be relevant to the child in the health example.
Based on the risks you identified, consider what further information you would need to gain a full understanding of the child’s health. Think about how you could gather this information in a sensitive fashion.
Consider how you could encourage parents or caregivers to be proactive toward the child’s health.
The Assignment
Assignment (3–4 pages, not including title and reference pages):

Assignment Option 2: Child Health Case:
Include the following:

An explanation of the health issues and risks that are relevant to the child you were assigned above.
Describe additional information you would need in order to further assess his or her weight-related health.
Identify and describe any risks and consider what further information you would need to gain a full understanding of the child’s health. Think about how you could gather this information in a sensitive fashion.
Taking into account the parents’ and caregivers’ potential sensitivities, list at least three specific questions you would ask about the child to gather more information.
Provide at least two strategies you could employ to encourage the parents or caregivers to be proactive about their child’s health and weight.

APA Overall, APA is very good. I am still seeing some errors in citing website references. As promised….here is an example.

Center for Disease Control. (2014). National diabetes prevention program. Center for Disease Control. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/prevention/index.htm

If you copy the URL address and place in your browser…..you will go directly to that page. A frequent error that students make is switching the author and the subject. No need to list the \”retrieved\” date in your citation either. When in doubt….refer to your APA manual, or the Purdue Writing Center https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

Scholarly References Many of you are including some very good references in your posts! I know that this is technically not a requirement according to the grading rubric, but I feel that it makes for very good learning. It also helps you utilize the evidence to support your clinical decisions as you move forward into this program. Some of you I have made comments about including more scholarly references in your work. I am not deducting points….just helping you to become better graduate learners!

Shadow Health SH assignments start next week. Be sure you have purchased the product and have successfully accessed the program. This week there are two non graded assignments that you should complete: DCE Orientation and the Conversation Concept lab. Be sure to become familiar with how this product works. In Week 4 you will have your first graded SH assignment. In week 4, please look at the DCE rubric. There are two parts to your grade…..the DCE score (which you can repeat as many times as you need to improve your grade), and the documentation grade. These two items will comprise your grade for the assignment. Please contact SH directly with any technical difficulties.

Required text

Seidel\’s Guide to Physical Examination: An Interprofessional Approach 9TH 19
Author: Ball, Jane W.
ISBN-13: 978-0-323-48195-3
ISBN-10: 0-323-48195-7
Edition/Copyright: 9TH 19
Publisher: C.V. M


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