HIST 152 WESTERN CIVILIZATION SINCE 1650 MCQS

Question: Western Europeans rejoiced when the Greeks gained independence in 1830 because

A Europeans identified with the Greeks, since ancient Greece was viewed as the home of all Western civilization

B This was a check to growing Turkish power in the eastern Mediterranean

C The Greek prince Ypsilanti, who led the revolt, was a charismatic and popular figure

D Europeans saw this as the first step toward independence for all subject peoples throughout Europe

Question: The first successful steam-powered passenger railway in the history of the world opened in 1830 and connected

A London and Manchester

B Manchester and Liverpool

C London and Edinburgh

D Liverpool and Edinburgh

Question: Gustave Flaubert’s novel Madame Bovary (1857) and Édouard Manet’s painting Olympia (1865) both explored

A Middle-class materialism

B Women’s sexuality

C Religious hypocrisy

D The lives of prostitutes

Question: In keeping with an intellectual countercurrent to industrialization, Sir Charles Barry rebuilt the British Houses of Parliament in the

A Classical style

B Baroque style

C Romanesque style

D Gothic style

Question: The new mass journalism of this period was characterized by

A An increase in sensational stories in newspapers and an emphasis on spreading information quickly

B A broadening of the literary scope of newspapers, to keep up with the expansion of commercial fiction

C A merging of political opinions in newspapers toward the center, an increased desire for “objectivity,” and the abandoning of specific liberal, conservative, or socialist points of view

D Increased prices to keep up with mounting wages and to boost profits for the new press barons

Question: The Reform Bill of 1832 was a political landmark because

A It gave representation to manufacturing cities in the north and set a precedent for the expansion of the percentage of eligible voters

B It granted a powerful voice to the numerically superior but materially poorer south

C Universal suffrage was given to all men over the age of twenty-five

D Women were granted the right to initiate divorce on grounds other than abandonment

Question: Bismarck sought to convince William I and the Junkers that a more powerful Germany could be built

A “By convincing Germans in Austria and elsewhere that we are all German brothers”

B Not “by speeches and majority decisions . . . but by iron and blood”

C By “continuing . . . the congress system so effectively pioneered by our Austrian brother Count Metternich”

D “By showing . . . a firm hand to our neighbors, . . . and a generous hand to our citizens”

Question: The founding of the Indian National Congress in 1885 represented

A A milestone in Indian self-government

B A direct and unprecedented challenge to Britain’s right to rule by educated Indian elites

C Yet another British increase in direct political control over the Indian subcontinent

D A liberalization of British policy toward Indian participation in colonial government

Question: In Great Britain, theorist Havelock Ellis (1859–1939) emerged as a practitioner of the new field of

A Sinology

B Political economy

C Sexology

D Sociology

Question: After a brief war in 1898, Spain lost Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines to

A Mexico

B The United States

C Great Britain

D France

Question: The ideology that argued for the restoration of social and religious hierarchies was

A Socialism

B Conservatism

C Liberalism

D Utilitarianism

Question: Violent attacks against Jews in Russia that were condoned by officials were known as

A Pomidors

B Prostudas

C Pogroms

D Podaroks

Question: In exchange for French help in driving Austria out of Italy, Cavour offered Napoleon III

A Unchallenged French occupation of Rome

B Piedmont-Sardinia’s support of French claims in the Balkans

C Savoy and the city of Nice

D Sardinia

Question: In the late nineteenth century, industrialization tended to be capital intensive, which means that

A Industries tended to mass themselves around capital cities

B Companies were expected to produce high returns for their investors

C Large amounts of money were needed to buy expensive machinery and equipment

D A handful of private banks made loans to the most profitable new industries

Question: One example of Metternich’s campaign of repression within the states of the German Confederation was the institution of the

A Enabling Law

B Act of Supremacy

C Burschenschaften

D Carlsbad Decrees

Question: The main difference between colonialism and imperialism was that

A Peoples subject to imperialism developed an articulate and organized opposition; colonized peoples seldom coordinated opposition

B Unlike colonialism, imperialism was a more aggressive, directly exploitative form of political domination

C Colonialism typically involved settlers dependent on slave labor, whereas imperialism involved more indirect forms of economic exploitation and political domination

D Unlike the European greed motivating colonialism, imperialism focused on exerting cultural rather than economic hegemony

Question: In the 1890s, Italy joined the race for imperial acquisitions and sent an army to conquer

A Ethiopia, only to be soundly defeated

B Argentina, successfully establishing Italian control over Buenos Aires

C Ethiopia, defeating the Ethiopian army at the battle of Adowa

D The Sudan, which was, however, claimed by the British

Question: The candidate who won the first presidential election after the French Revolution of 1848 was

A Alphonse de Lamartine

B The marquis de Lafayette

C Louis Blanc

D Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte

Question: In the Crimean War of 1853–1856, Britain and France fought to

A Save Greece from the Ottoman Empire

B Defend the Ottoman Empire from dismemberment by Russia

C Protect the Bulgarians from Austro-Hungary massacres

D Stop Prussia from annexing parts of Denmark

Question: In the 1820s, socialists were more hostile to the status quo than were liberals because

A Socialists demanded that workers take over all the large factories without compensating former owners, while liberals said that owners should be reimbursed

B Factory workers who supported the socialists far outnumbered the liberals, who were backed by the middle classes

C Many former soldiers voted for socialists rather than liberals in elections because they identified the liberals with the regimes established by the Congress of Vienna

D Socialists believed that society had to be completely reorganized, whereas liberals wanted to make changes without upsetting the basic structure of society

Question: After touring Manchester, England, in the 1830s, Alexis de Tocqueville concluded that

A Conditions of factory workers were much better than previous observers had reported

B The rapid development of industry was spreading wealth throughout society

C Industrialization produced both great misery and great wealth at the same time

D Most workers were secretly engaged in trade union activity or even socialism

Question: The British made Canada a united, self-governing dominion in 1867, in part to

A Reduce colonial administration expenses more urgently needed in India

B Undercut a demand by the United States that it be allowed to annex Canada

C Encourage the Irish to emigrate there

D Encourage other colonies to assimilate British mores, tastes, and opinions more quickly

Question: Napoleon III offered the Austrian emperor Francis Joseph’s brother, Maximilian

A His allegiance in a Franco-Austrian war against Russia

B The chance to replace the former king of Spain, recently overthrown in a military coup

C Control of Mexico and ultimately of all Central America

D His support in Maximilian’s plan to seize the imperial throne from his brother

Question: The Russian Revolution of 1905 was caused by

A Troops firing on a crowd of workers protesting their inhumane working conditions

B Tsar Nicholas II’s refusal to allow Lenin and his Bolsheviks back into the country after their exile

C A bitter dispute between the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks in the Duma

D The successful Boxer Uprising in China, inspiring Russian peasants to take up arms

Question: The crop failures of the mid-1840s not only drove up the price of food but also

A Led employers to demand that workers put in unpaid overtime to produce more goods to sell to overseas markets

B Forced the military establishments of Europe to cut back on recruitment

C Destroyed medicines based on plant products, making it harder to fight infections

D Drove down demand for products, thereby creating widespread unemployment

Question: The discovery of this medicine removed a roadblock to European conquest of Africa.

A Quinine

B Cola

C Aspirin

D Sodium bicarbonate

Question: Italian unification in 1861 was led by the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia because

A It had industry, a good economy, a strong army, and the backing of France

B The pope would work only with prime minister Camillo di Cavour and no one else

C It was the home of Giuseppe Garibaldi and most of his “Red Shirts”

D Its strategic location meant that unification would be impossible without its support

Question: Which of the following was not true of the “congress system” established by the Congress of Vienna (1814–1815)?

A It provided a new framework for international relations based on periodic meetings, or congresses, between major European countries

B It served as an important vehicle for maintenance of the European status quo and the forces of conservatism

C It led to a sudden shift of power from Prussia to Austria, as Metternich outmaneuvered the Prussian representative

D It helped to prevent another major war until mid-century and another world war until 1914

Question: In general, large numbers from rural Sicily, Ireland, and Scandinavia emigrated because

A The population was expanding so rapidly that these home countries did not have enough jobs to employ the growing labor pool

B None of these countries was an independent, democratic state, and people left to find more freedom

C American entrepreneurs who needed workers targeted these people and gave them large signing bonuses to emigrate

D These three areas lagged behind the rest of Europe in unionization

Question: Which one of the following statements about the Industrial Revolution is false?

A By the 1840s, a full 35 percent of the British labor force was employed in factories

B By 1850, the German states had nearly twice as many miles of railroad as the French

C During the 1840s, German coal and iron output were 6 or 7 percent of the British output

D In the 1840s, factories in England employed a mere 5 percent of workers

Question: Georges-Eugène Haussmann, who designed urban changes for Paris

A Worked to pipe clean water from the countryside to every dwelling in Paris

B Established public bathhouses in every section of the city

C Installed public toilets for men and women in business districts

D Built multifamily dwellings for workers adjoining factories and railway stations

Question: In 1830, France invaded and established political control over Algeria and

A Tahiti

B Micronesia

C Guyana

D Ischia

Question: As industrialization advanced, the two problems that began to plague entrepreneurs most were skyrocketing start-up costs and

A Excessive state regulatory interference

B An outmoded stock market system

C Supply that was greater than demand

D A steep rise in workers’ wages

Question: The Law of Indemnity, the Law of Sacrilege, the dissolution of the legislature, and the imposition of strict censorship were all undertaken by

A Charles X

B Prince Klemens von Metternich

C Ferdinand VII

D Frederick William III

Question: In 1859, graffiti reading “VERDI,” which appeared on the walls of Italian cities, represented

A Opposition to the monarchy of Victor Emmanuel II, whose opponents used an insulting acronym for “Victor Emmanuel Re d’Idioti” (“king of Idiots”)

B A reference to the green (Italian verde) flag of the Piedmontese nationalists

C The Italian people’s mania for the new operas of Giuseppe Verdi

D A cryptic call for Italian unification under the leadership of Vittorio Emmanuele Re d’Italia (“king of Italy”)

Question: Which of the following relationships was true in the 1960s?

A R&B influenced Nashville artists

B Nashville artists influenced R&B

C Neither A nor B

D Nashville artists influenced classical artists

Question: The Economist was established in 1843 to promote the free-trade goals of the

A Alliance Français

B Anti-Corn Law League

C British and Imperial Merchants Association

D Workers’ Alliance for Fair Prices

Question: In pursuing its program for modernization, the Meiji government

A Gave overly favorable trade agreements to technologically advanced Western powers

B Incurred the wrath and intractable resistance of its artisan and merchant classes

C Did not tolerate anyone who opposed modernization

D Received financial support from France

Question: Although Tsar Alexander II freed the serfs, a free, mobile labor force was stymied by

A Lengthy military conscription that kept men in the army for twenty-five years

B A lack of roads and rail transport

C The fact that zemstvos (local councils) often denied former serfs’ requests for permission to move

D The fact that former serfs remained tied to a system of communal landowning and decision making

Question: Which of the following was not a reform granted by Emperor Francis Joseph in Austria-Hungary?

A Ethnic minorities could receive an education

B Ethnic minorities could use their own language to communicate with officials

C Internal trade barriers were lifted

D Compulsory military service ended for nobles and peasants

Question: Scientists Antoine Becquerel, Marie Curie, and Max Planck all argued that

A Fellow scientist Alfred Nobel’s invention of dynamite in 1866 would one day lead to a worldwide military conflagration

B Completion of the periodic table would revolutionize commercial application of chemical compounds by vastly facilitating their reproduction

C Matter was not solid but, rather, made up of mutable atoms, themselves made up of subatomic particles moving about a core

D The spontaneous emission of radiation occurred directly from unstable atomic nuclei, which, if marshaled, could be used medically to treat tumors

Question: Russia encouraged anti-Japanese groups in which country?

A Indochina

B Formosa

C Korea

D Manchuria

Question: Historians use the concept of a “Second” Industrial Revolution to refer to

A The new sociocultural environment that emerged as a result of industrialization

B German industry’s surpassing of Great Britain in both output and profit

C The rise of heavy industries (coal, iron, and steel), railroads, and electricity in Great Britain after textiles and steam power in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries

D Industrialization of former colonies like Canada and the United States

Question: The overall European population was growing at the end of the nineteenth century, but

A Most governments worried that they lacked enough manpower for their armies

B The birthrate was falling in almost every country

C Governments still struggled to collect enough taxes to pay for urban improvements

D Average life expectancy did not increase

Question: In terms of their impact, what set Marx and Engels apart from other socialist and communist intellectuals?

A They tried to suppress trade unions because they thought unions would slow the advance of socialism

B The Communist Manifesto became the foundation document for communist revolutions around the world

C They were willing to work with liberals and other reformers in England and Germany

D They put religion, and particularly early Christianity, at the heart of their ideology

Question: Many European countries began to close the industrial gap with Great Britain from 1800 to 1840

A And these countries were generally able to close that gap by 1850 on their own initiative

B But even by 1850, continental Europe was almost twenty years behind British industrialization

C And through economic cooperation and sharing of technical exports, continental countries caught up with Britain’s industrial production

D But by 1850, they had failed to catch up to Great Britain because Britain had capitalized on its early industrialization and pulled even further ahead

Question: The reasoning behind the new British poor law in 1834, dubbed by its critics the “Starvation Act,” was that

A Providing food subsidies only to married women would reduce illegitimacy

B Denying workhouse access to women under thirty years of age would force their families to care for them

C Reducing the amount of food offered to urban workhouse residents would compel them to leave and return to the countryside

D The distress caused by the separation of family members from one another in workhouses would encourage the poor to move to areas of higher employment

Question: The Paris Commune of 1871 was established because

A Parisian workers rebelled against the conservative government installed by Prussia

B The women and men of Paris were outraged that the government planned to tear down their neighborhoods for urban renovation

C The provisional government could not supply sufficient food to the capital during the Prussian siege of the city, so Parisians elected their own government to meet the crisis

D The elections held under the new Third Republic deliberately underrepresented Paris, which was traditionally more radical than the rest of the country

Question: Which one of the following countries spent just as much on education in the last quarter of the nineteenth century as it did on its military?

A Germany

B Great Britain

C France

D Russia

Question: The term modernity was often applied to this period because it

A Outlines the ways in which almost all aspects of European life saw a rejection of past methods, morals, and manners

B Encompasses both the fruits of industrialization and the general acceptance that liberal capitalism was the best method for bringing about social happiness

C Describes the total abandonment of conventional social behavior in Europe, as characterized by extremely lax sexual mores and by anarchical economics

D Captures the accelerated pace of life, urbanization, mass politics, and artistic responses to all of these changes

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