1. What major problem did the Roman Empire face in the mid to late Fourth Century?

A. Weak leadership

B. Immigration and invasion

C. Lack of education within the empire

D. Poor infrastructure

2. A staple food transplanted from Southeast Asia to the Mediterranean world as a result of the Islamic

Empire was

A. wheat.

B. yams.

C. potatoes.

D. rice.

3. How did Alfred the Great secure his modern reputation as a state-builder?

A. He was lavishly generous to monks.

B. He gave free land and tax breaks to peasants.

C. He forced people to live in militarized colonies.

D. He encouraged trade through tax incentives to merchants and businessmen.

4. Which of the following did the Mayans consider to be worthy of recording?

A. Information about everyday life

B. The laws of their society

C. Trade records

D. Ceremonial rituals

5. In forming his government, Asoka recruited what group to serve as bureaucrats?

A. The Buddhist clergy

B. The rising merchant class

C. Traditional Brahman elites

D. The military elite

6. In the development of the Roman Empire, the Romans treated citizenship as

A. belonging only to native Romans.

B. a benefit worthy only of peoples who had freely joined them.

C. meaningless because the Roman Empire was tyrannical.

D. something to be shared with conquered people.

7. The Emperor Charlemagne spread Christianity among the Saxons by

A. excluding pagans from trade and commerce.

B. imposing taxes on those who didn’t convert.

C. giving pagans a choice of conversion or death.

D. by way of exemplary faith that set an example.

8. On what basis were the Khmer people able to coalesce into a single large kingdom?

A. Exploiting the flooding of the Mekong River

B. Development of its pottery industry

C. Wealth from mining and timber

D. Wealth from its trading fleet

9. Legalism was the dominant political philosophy in China during the reign of

A. Yamatai.

B. Han Wudi.

C. Liu Bang.

D. Xiongnu.

10. Which ruler’s conversion to Christianity ensured this religion would be adopted by eastern Slavs and


A. Vladimir

B. Altigin

C. Constantine

D. Mieszko

11. Which of the following were major items of trade in the West African states of Ghana and Gao?

A. Coffee and sugar

B. Gold and salt

C. Cacao beans and slaves

D. Bananas and copper

12. The division between Shia and Sunni Muslims originally arose over

A. how Christians and Jews should be treated.

B. who could be a caliph.

C. an understanding of the nature of Allah.

D. how one should pray.

13. Which of the following is not one of the new thoughts of or about God that were formulated in the

Axial Age?

A. Single God

B. Divine God

C. Involved God

D. Many Gods

14. What group colonized many small islands in the Pacific Ocean?

A. Polynesians

B. Japanese

C. Chinese

D. Koreans

15. In the sixth century, kingdoms in India were

A. adopting Buddhism as their official religion.

B. adopting Islam as their official religion.

C. undergoing successive waves of conversions to Christianity, Buddhism, and Islam.

D. developing traditions that would become Hinduism.

16. Confucius believed that human beings are essentially

A. evil.

B. sinful.

C. good.

D. gods.

17. _______ was the first thinker to postulate that numbers are real, not abstractions.

A. Aristotle

B. Hui Shih

C. Parmenides

D. Pythagoras

18. Which emperor declared Christianity to be the official religion of the Roman empire?

A. Constantine

B. Charlemagne

C. Eusebius

D. Theodosius

19. What strategy did Buddhist and Christian missionaries employ to spread their faith that Muslims didn’t?

A. Forceful conversion of others

B. Conversion of merchants

C. Use of artifacts

D. Conversion of kings and other elite figures

20. What geographic feature at times made life difficult for the Moche of South America?

A. Desert

B. Unpredictable rivers

C. Lack of access to the sea

D. Mountain


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