Hybrid designs combine the advantages of

Question 1

Hybrid designs combine the advantages of


a. cross-sectional and correlational research methods.

b. cross-sectional and longitudinal research methods.

c.  correlational and longitudinal research methods.

d.  correlational and experimental research methods.

Question 2

One advantage of naturalistic observation is that it


a. allows the researcher to determine why behavior occurs.

b. lets the researcher carefully control the environment.

c. provides information about real-life behaviors.

d. helps researchers determine the thinking behind the child’s behavior.

Question 3

Negative correlations indicate


a. negative outcomes.

b. inconclusive results.

c. low scores of one variable are associated with low scores of another variable.

d. high scores of one variable are associated with low scores of another variable.

Question 4

Identify the correct historical order of emergence for the following theories.


a. social learning, dynamic systems, psychoanalytic

b. psychoanalytic, behavioral, neuropsychological

c. behavioral, dynamic systems, neuropsychological

d. psychoanalytic, social learning, dynamic systems

Question 5

Which of the following statements regarding theories is TRUE?


a. Theories summarize currently known facts.

b. Theories seldom allow for predictions to be made.

c. Theories can directly be proven to be either right or wrong.

d. Theories remain stable despite scientific advances.

Question 6

Dr. Schaab is a cross-cultural psychologist who conducts research on differences between collectivistic and individualistic societies. Bronfenbrenner would say that Dr. Schaab is focusing on the


a. microsystem.

b. mesosystem.

c. macrosystem.

d. exosystem.

Question 7

The main purpose of a university’s Institutional Review Board (IRB) is to determine whether researchers


a. are using the appropriate scientific method.

b. are adhering to ethical standards.

c. have appropriate credentials for conducting studies.

d. are testing their hypotheses efficiently.

Question 8

Generally speaking, many theories


a. address specific aspects of development.

b. are remarkably similar to one another.

c. can be easily compared until one is proven “right.”

d. do not allow for specific predictions to be made.

Question 9

Dr. McGaw was interested in whether children’s recall of familiar or unfamiliar words improved with age, so she tested 4-year-olds, 6-year-olds, and 8-year-olds at the same point in time. This is an example of a


a. hybrid design.

b. case study design.

c. cross-sectional design.

d. longitudinal design.

Question 10

Praise and hugs are typically examples of


a. fixations.

b. imprinting.

c. ethology.

d. reinforcement.

Question 11

Learning to use the bathroom appropriately and waiting until morning to eat are examples of


a. fixation.

b. delay of gratification.

c. unconscious sexual desires.

d. superego development.

Question 12

Early behaviorists were interested in


a. making psychology more objective and scientific.

b. ensuring that elements of the unconscious mind were more measurable.

c. helping psychology align itself more with theories of evolution.

d. understanding children’s thought processes.

Question 13

Raenna was grounded for two weeks because she arrived home after her curfew one night. Raenna now comes home before her curfew due to


a. observational learning.

b. social learning.

c. classical conditioning.

d. operant conditioning.

Question 14

According to psychoanalytic theory, in order to have a healthy personality


a. a person’s id must be stronger than the ego and superego to insure survival.

b. a person’s superego must be stronger than the ego and id for moral development to occur.

c. the id, ego, and superego must be eliminated during psychosexual development.

d. the ego must balance the id and superego and be able to cope with external demands.

Question 15

Erikson theorized that the primary challenge facing newborns was


a. dealing with oral needs.

b. struggling with trust issues.

c. developing a sense of patience.

d. coping with unconscious sexual desires.

Question 16

According to Vygotsky’s theory, development occurs due to the person’s


a. internalization of cultural values.

b. reorganization of mental schemes with age.

c. imitation of adult authority figures.

d. development of a basic sense of trust.

Question 17

Which of the following statements concerning Piaget’s perspective on learning is TRUE?


a. Learning is primarily unconscious and occurs through classical conditioning.

b. Learning is a continual cycle of assimilation and accommodation.

c. Learning occurs when the ego is strong enough to balance the id and superego.

d. Learning occurs through the processes of modeling and imitation.

Question 18

Eisenberg et al. (1999) studied a single group of 32 children, taking measurements of their helping behaviors approximately every two years from the time the children were four years old until they were young adults. This study used a(n)


a. hybrid design.

b. experimental design.

c. cross-sectional design.

d. longitudinal design.

Question 19

The fact that IQ scores are more similar among identical twins than among fraternal twins


a. suggests that siblings treated similarly will be similar in achievement.

b. suggests that siblings of the same gender are more intellectually similar.

c. shows the influence of nurture on children’s intellectual development.

d. shows the influence of nature on children’s intellectual development.

Question 20

Ninety preschool children are randomly divided into three groups. Every day for two weeks, one group watches 30 minutes of “Sesame Street,” a second group watches 30 minutes of “Road Runner” cartoons, and a third group watches 30 minutes of “Scooby Doo” cartoons. At the end of two weeks, all three groups are given a test of creativity. This research design would best be classified as


a. correlational.

b. experimental.

c. longitudinal.

d. naturalistic observation.


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