The common goal of investigators who study child development is to
a. join the fields of psychology, sociology, anthropology, biology, and neuroscience
b. predict academic success during adolescence.
c. analyze human behavior and its effects on family relationships.
d. describe and identify those factors that influence young people during the first two decades of life.
Marcus was abused by his parents during his preschool years. Now in elementary school and living with a foster family, Marcus’s school counselor believes those early negative events can be overcome by his now positive life circumstances. The counselor is emphasizing the role of __________ in development.
The development of __________ memory is linked with the emergence of the __________ self
a. recognition; social
b. working; enduring
c. semantic; categorical
d. autobiographical; remembered
Each person is made up of trillions of __________ and 23 __________.
a. genes; billion cells
b. cells; matching pairs of chromosomes
c. matching pairs of chromosomes; genes
d. cells; chromosomes
According to Freud, the __________ works to reconcile the demands of the __________ and the __________.
a. id; ego; superego
b. superego; id; ego
c. ego; id; superego
d. id; conscience; subconscience
Pavlov successfully taught dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell by using:
a. operant conditioning
b. behavior modification
c. classical conditioning
d. observational learning.
Cross-cultural research shows that German and Greek caregivers use a(n) __________ parenting style common in cultures that value independence, while Nso caregivers use a(n) __________ parenting style typical in cultures that value interdependence.
a. authoritarian; permissive
b. permissive; uninvolved
c. distal; proximal
d. proximal; distal
According to Bandura’s social learning theory, children learn primarily through
b. Classical Conditioning
c. Behavior Modification
d. Operant Conditioning
Compared with other species, human children
a. develop faster.
b. are more attached to their family
c. are more independent.
d. develop slowly.
In the innermost level of the environment, Bronfenbrenner emphasized that:
a. reinforcement, punishment, and modeled behaviors are the most important environmental influences.
b. the same environmental influences affect children in uniform ways.
c. children acquire culturally valued practices from interactions with adults.
d. when reciprocal interactions occur often over time, they have an enduring impact on development.