Experimental, placebo-controlled studies have demonstrated that using subliminal messages to control appetite or smoking have _____ effect on behavior.
a. a slight
b. a powerful
c. a negative
Heather decides to seek out a therapist to help her work through feelings of anxiety. Her therapist allows her to direct the therapy sessions and discuss what she feels is relevant. Her therapist, who views Heather as an innately good person, also suggests she attend group therapy to learn how to make better choices for herself. Based on this information, to which school of thought does Heather’s therapist most likely adhere?
Holly quit smoking years ago, but sometimes she really misses the routine of going out for smoke breaks and starting the morning with coffee and a cigarette. At those times, Holly is struggling with _____
b. psychological dependence.
c. physical dependence.
How many physiological and psychological functions are affected by the circadian rhythms?
a. two; sleep and wakefulness
b. three; sleep, wakefulness, and temperature
c. virtually every one that has been studied
d. four; sleep, wakefulness, temperature, and digestion
If we briefly flashed the image of an orange to the right field of vision of an individual after split-brain surgery, they will most likely say they see _____
b. an orange.
c. something but be unable to name it.
d. only something round.
If we were to design an experiment to test the hypothesis that aspirin takes headaches away, the independent variable would be _____ and the dependent variable would be _____
a. headaches; aspirin.
b. aspirin; Tylenol.
c. aspirin; headaches.
d. measured; manipulated.
Immediately after firing, a neuron cannot fire for 1 to 2 milliseconds. This is called the _____ period.
In the experimental method, the _____ is sometimes referred to as the treatment.
a. independent variable
b. dependent variable
c. confounding variable
d. heuristic value
In the Lang study, aggression was measured by the intensity and durationof “shocks” the participants chose to deliver to the researcher’s accomplice. This was the _____ definition of aggression for this experiment.
Jacob had trouble matching his facial expressions to the appropriate emotion or correctly interpreting others’ emotional cues from their facial expressions. He needed more help from his _____
a. mirror neurons.
b. social neurons.
c. interpretive neurons.
d. frontal lobes.
Kim wants to talk with a therapist who will see him in a positive light and respect his personal experience while helping him understand his feelings and create a meaningful life. Kim will be most satisfied with a therapist who takes the _____ perspective.
Lateralization refers to which of the following?
a. the idea that the right side of the brain controls the left side of the body
b. the notion that each hemisphere of the brain specializes in particular functions
c. the procedure in which the corpus callosum is severed
d. the inability to produce speech
Looking like leafless branches of a tree, the _____ are the primary receivers of signals from other neurons, although the _____ also receives signals directly.
a. axon; dendrites
b. dendrites; soma
c. soma; dendrites
d. dendrites; axon
Lyta sustained damage to her left hemisphere. Which of these areas is she most likely to have difficulty with as a result of left hemisphere damage?
b. control of the left side of her body
c. interpreting facial expressions
d. perceiving visual-spatial relationships
Malcolm is studying alone in his room when he hears a loud noise downstairs. His heart rate and respiration speed up. He wonders if a burglar has entered the house. When he looks downstairs, he sees that his cat just knocked over a plant. He begins to relax and his heart rate and breathing slow down. Which part of his nervous system is working to return him to a normal state?
a. spinal cord
b. somatic nervous system
c. parasympathetic nervous system
d. central nervous system
Melatonin, a hormone that regulates sleep and wakefulness, is produced by the _____ gland.