New and exciting Psychology 3322 Chapter-5

New and exciting Psychology 3322 Chapter-5

True / False

 

1. Johannes Müller held that whatever excites a particular   nerve establishes a special kind of energy unique to that nerve.​

 

a.

True

 

b.

False

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

General Principles     of Perception

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.01 –     Remember that we see because light strikes the retina, sending a message to     the brain.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

2. The coding of visual information in your brain results   in an exact duplicate of the object’s shape on the surface of the   cortex.​

 

a.

True

 

b.

False

 

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

General Principles     of Perception

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.01 –     Remember that we see because light strikes the retina, sending a message to     the brain.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

3. The cornea is an adjustable structure in the eye that   focuses light.​

 

a.

True

 

b.

False

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Eye and Its     Connections to the Brain

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

4. Amacrine cells refine the input to ganglion cells,   enabling them to respond specifically to shapes, movement, or other   visual features.​

 

a.

True

 

b.

False

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Eye and Its     Connections to the Brain

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

5. Shapes are more easily identified with peripheral vision   than foveal vision.​

 

a.

True

 

b.

False

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Eye and Its     Connections to the Brain

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 –     List the properties of cones and rods.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

6. Photopigments are stable in the dark.​

 

a.

True

 

b.

False

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Visual Receptors:     Rods and Cones

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 –     List the properties of cones and rods.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

7. According to the trichromatic theory, we can perceive   only three colors.​

 

a.

True

 

b.

False

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Color Vision

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 –     Explain the main features of color vision.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

8. The retinex theory accounts for the principle of color   constancy.​

 

a.

True

 

b.

False

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Color Vision

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 –     Explain the main features of color vision.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

9. An object’s location, color, and movement are all   processed in the same part of the visual cortex.​

 

a.

True

 

b.

False

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Primary Visual     Cortex

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

10. Lateral inhibition is the reduction of activity in one   neuron by activity in neighboring neurons.​

 

a.

True

 

b.

False

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Processing in the     Retina

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.05 –     Explain lateral inhibition in terms of the connections among neurons in the     retina.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

11. Parvocellular cells respond strongly to moving stimuli   and large overall patterns.​

 

a.

True

 

b.

False

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Further Processing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 –     Define and give examples of receptive fields.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

12. The ventral stream of visual processing is important   for identifying movement.​

 

a.

True

 

b.

False

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Ventral and     Dorsal Paths

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.3 Parallel     Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

13. Simple cells are found exclusively in the primary   visual cortex.​

 

a.

True

 

b.

False

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Primary Visual     Cortex

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 –     Define and give examples of receptive fields.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

14. A complex cell responds to a pattern of light in a   particular orientation.​

 

a.

True

 

b.

False

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Primary Visual     Cortex

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 –     Define and give examples of receptive fields.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

15. Infants are born with the ability to control their   visual attention.​

 

a.

True

 

b.

False

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Detailed Analysis of     Shape

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.07 –     Describe research on how experiences alter development of the visual     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.3 Parallel     Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

Multiple Choice

 

16. The law of specific nerve energies states that ____.​

 

a.

​perception of a     repeated stimulus fades

 

b.

​every stimulation     of the optic nerve is perceived as light

 

c.

​the speed of action     potentials varies depending on the strength of the stimulus

 

d.

​any stimulation     above the threshold produces an action potential

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Analyze

 

REFERENCES:  

General Principles     of Perception

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.01 –     Remember that we see because light strikes the retina, sending a message to     the brain.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

17. According to the law of specific nerve energies, the   brain tells the difference between one sensory modality and another by   ____.​

 

a.

​which     neurotransmitter is released

 

b.

​which neurons are     active

 

c.

​the velocity of the     action potentials

 

d.

​the amplitude of     the action potentials

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

General Principles     of Perception

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.01 –     Remember that we see because light strikes the retina, sending a message to     the brain.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

18. In the human retina, messages go from receptors at the   back of the eye to ____.​

 

a.

​retina cells

 

b.

​bipolar cells

 

c.

​ganglion cells

 

d.

​spiny cells

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Eye and Its     Connections to the Brain

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

19. Light enters the eye through an opening in the center   of the iris called the ____. ​

 

a.

​retina

 

b.

​cornea

 

c.

​pupil

 

d.

​macula

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Eye and Its     Connections to the Brain

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

20. Bipolar cells send their messages to ____, which are   located close to the center of the eye.​

 

a.

​spiny cells

 

b.

​cornea cells

 

c.

​bipolar cells

 

d.

​ganglion cells

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Eye and Its     Connections to the Brain

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

21. Light from the right half of the world strikes which   part of the retina?​

 

a.

​the left half

 

b.

​the right half

 

c.

​the whole retina     equally

 

d.

​It depends of the     wavelength.

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Eye and Its     Connections to the Brain

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

22. In what order does visual information pass through the   retina?​

 

a.

​receptor cells,     ganglion cells, bipolar cells

 

b.

​ganglion cells,     bipolar cells, receptor cells

 

c.

​receptor cells,     bipolar cells, ganglion cells

 

d.

​bipolar cells,     receptor cells, ganglion cells

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Eye and Its     Connections to the Brain

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

23. Various types of ____ cells refine the input to   ganglion cells, enabling them to respond specifically to shapes,   movement, or other visual features.​

 

a.

​receptors

 

b.

​geniculate cells

 

c.

​amacrine cells

 

d.

​optic nerves

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Eye and Its     Connections to the Brain

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

24. The optic nerve is composed of axons from which kind of   cell?​

 

a.

​rods and cones

 

b.

​bipolar cells

 

c.

​horizontal cells

 

d.

​ganglion cells

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Eye and Its     Connections to the Brain

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

25. The name of the point at which the optic nerve leaves the   retina is called the ____.​

 

a.

​blind spot

 

b.

​fovea

 

c.

​optic chiasm

 

d.

​ganglion

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Eye and Its     Connections to the Brain

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

26. Which statement characterizes the fovea?​

 

a.

​It has the greatest     perception of detail.

 

b.

​It surrounds the     point of exit of the optic nerve.

 

c.

​It falls in the     shadow cast by the pupil.

 

d.

​It has more rods     than cones.

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Eye and Its     Connections to the Brain

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

27. If you want to see something in fine detail, you should   focus the light on which part of your retina?​

 

a.

​the optic nerve

 

b.

​the fovea

 

c.

​an area containing     mostly rods

 

d.

​the cornea

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Analyze

 

REFERENCES:  

The Eye and Its     Connections to the Brain

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 –     List the properties of cones and rods.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

28. The retinas of predatory birds such as hawks ____.​

 

a.

​have no discernible     fovea

 

b.

​have a greater     density of receptors than do humans on the top half of the retina

 

c.

​have a greater     density of receptors than do humans on the bottom half of the retina

 

d.

​are virtually     indistinguishable from the retinas of humans

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Eye and Its     Connections to the Brain

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

29. In vertebrate retinas, receptors send their messages   ____.​

 

a.

​straight to the     brain

 

b.

​immediately to     ganglion cells within the retina

 

c.

​to bipolar cells     within the retina

 

d.

​to the periphery of     the retina first, ganglion cells next, and bipolar cells last

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Eye and Its     Connections to the Brain

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

30. Why does the fovea provide the clearest, most detailed   visual information?​

 

a.

​It is closest to     the pupil.

 

b.

​It surrounds the     optic nerve.

 

c.

​It has tightly     packed receptors.

 

d.

​It contains many     blood vessels for supplying energy.

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Eye and Its     Connections to the Brain

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 –     List the properties of cones and rods.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

31. Which statement is TRUE with regard to peripheral   vision?​

 

a.

​It is very     sensitive to detail.

 

b.

​It is easier to     recognize single objects in the periphery that are not surrounded by     other objects.

 

c.

​It is not very     sensitive to light.

 

d.

​It is most     sensitive to color, which helps to differentiate multiple objects clearly.

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Eye and Its Connections     to the Brain

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 –     List the properties of cones and rods.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

32. In comparison to the rods, cones are more ____.​

 

a.

​common toward the     periphery of the retina

 

b.

​sensitive to detail

 

c.

​sensitive to dim     light

 

d.

​common in rodents     and other nocturnal animals

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Visual Receptors:     Rods and Cones

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 –     List the properties of cones and rods.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

33. ____ are chemicals that release energy when struck by   light.​

 

a.

​Phototransmitters

 

b.

​Photosins

 

c.

​Photopigments

 

d.

​Photoions

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Visual Receptors:     Rods and Cones

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 –     List the properties of cones and rods.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

34. Light energy converts 11-cis-retinal to ____.​

 

a.

​opsins

 

b.

​unstable proteins

 

c.

​all-trans-retinal

 

d.

​sodium

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Visual Receptors:     Rods and Cones

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 –     List the properties of cones and rods.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

35. Chemicals that release energy when struck by light are   called ____.​

 

a.

​photo-optics

 

b.

​photopigments

 

c.

​opsins

 

d.

​kestrels

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Visual Receptors:     Rods and Cones

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 –     List the properties of cones and rods.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

36. In comparison to cones, rods ____.​

 

a.

​are more common     toward the center of the retina

 

b.

​are more sensitive     to detail

 

c.

​are more sensitive     to dim light

 

d.

​reach their peak     firing levels slowly

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Visual Receptors:     Rods and Cones

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 –     List the properties of cones and rods.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

37. Rods are to ____ as cones are to ____.​

 

a.

​the periphery; the     fovea

 

b.

​red; blue

 

c.

​vertebrates;     invertebrates

 

d.

​reading text;     reading road signs

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Analyze

 

REFERENCES:  

Visual Receptors:     Rods and Cones

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 –     List the properties of cones and rods.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

38. ____ modify the ____ sensitivity to different   wavelengths of light.​

 

a.

​Retinol;     photopigments

 

b.

​Opsins; retinol

 

c.

​Photopigments;     opsins

 

d.

​Opsins;     photopigments

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Visual Receptors:     Rods and Cones

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 –     List the properties of cones and rods.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

39. Peripheral vision mainly depends upon ____.​

 

a.

​the fovea

 

b.

​cones

 

c.

​rods

 

d.

​just a few     receptors

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Visual Receptors:     Rods and Cones

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 –     List the properties of cones and rods.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

40. Night-active species are more likely than day-active   species to have ____.​

 

a.

​better peripheral     vision

 

b.

​larger blind spots

 

c.

​a greater rod to     cone ratio

 

d.

​a greater cone to     rod ratio

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Visual Receptors:     Rods and Cones

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 –     List the properties of cones and rods.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

41. Why do humans perceive faint light better in the   periphery of the eye?​

 

a.

​Receptors in the     periphery are closer to the pupil.

 

b.

​The fovea is closer     to the retina’s blind spot than peripheral receptors.

 

c.

​More receptors in     the periphery than in the fovea funnel input to each ganglion cell.

 

d.

​Ganglion cells in     the periphery transmit their information to a larger brain area.

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Eye and Its     Connections to the Brain

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 –     List the properties of cones and rods.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

42. Which receptors are responsible for the perception of   color?​

 

a.

​cones only

 

b.

​rods only

 

c.

​both rods and cones

 

d.

​horizontal and     amacrine cells

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Color Vision

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 –     List the properties of cones and rods.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

43. According to the trichromatic theory of color vision   ____.​

 

a.

​there are only     three rods and three cones in each eye

 

b.

​there are only     three colors of light in the world

 

c.

​rods are important     for perception of light colors

 

d.

​our perception of     color depends on the relative activity of three types of cones

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Color Vision

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 –     Explain the main features of color vision.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

44. According to the Young-Helmholtz theory, what is the   basis for color vision?​

 

a.

​a different     receptor for each color

 

b.

three kinds of cones

 

c.

​a single receptor     that produces different responses for each color

 

d.

​the combined     influences of rods and cones

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Color Vision

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 –     Explain the main features of color vision.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

45. According to the trichromatic theory of color vision,   the most important factor in determining the color we see is the ____.​

 

a.

​velocity of the     action potential

 

b.

​absolute activity     of a single cone

 

c.

​difference between     cone and rod activity

 

d.

​relative activity     of short, medium, and long wavelengths

 

ANSWER:  

d

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Color Vision

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 –     Explain the main features of color vision.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

46. The fact that all colors on older televisions were   created by combining only three different colors of light supports the   ____ theory of color vision.​

 

a.

​CRT

 

b.

​opponent process

 

c.

​retinex

 

d.

​trichromatic

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Analyze

 

REFERENCES:  

Color Vision

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 –     Explain the main features of color vision.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

47. At the level of rods and cones, the ____ theory seems   to fit best, while at the level of the bipolar cells, the ____ theory   seems to fit best.​

 

a.

​opponent process;     volley

 

b.

​volley;     trichromatic

 

c.

​opponent process;     trichromatic

 

d.

​trichromatic;     opponent process

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Analyze

 

REFERENCES:  

Color Vision

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 –     Explain the main features of color vision.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

48. After you stare at a bright green object for a minute   and look away, you see red. Which theory attempts to explain this   finding?​

 

a.

​Young-Helmholtz     theory

 

b.

​trichromatic theory

 

c.

​opponent-process     theory

 

d.

​color-constancy     theory

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Color Vision

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 –     Explain the main features of color vision.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

49. Which theory of color vision is best able to explain   negative color afterimages?​

 

a.

​retinex theory

 

b.

​opponent-process     theory

 

c.

​trichromatic theory

 

d.

​kodak theory

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Color Vision

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 –     Explain the main features of color vision.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

50. Color constancy is the ability to ____.​

 

a.

​perceive all     wavelengths as the same color

 

b.

​see color, even in     very faint light

 

c.

​differentiate among     many colors and hues

 

d.

​recognize the color     of an object despite changes in lighting

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Color Vision

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 –     Explain the main features of color vision.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

51. Color and brightness constancy are best explained by   the ____ theory of color vision.​

 

a.

​trichromatic

 

b.

​opponent-process

 

c.

​retinex

 

d.

​constancy

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Color Vision

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 –     Explain the main features of color vision.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

52. According to the retinex theory, we perceive color by   ____.​

 

a.

​the relative     activity of three kinds of cones

 

b.

​contrasting the     activity in one area of the visual field with that of the others

 

c.

​a red vs. green     system and a yellow vs. blue system

 

d.

​detecting the     velocity of action potentials from the eye

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Color Vision

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 –     Explain the main features of color vision.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

53. Which theory can best explain why people that are   wearing yellow-colored glasses can still identify the color of a green   apple?​

 

a.

​trichromatic theory

 

b.

​retinex theory

 

c.

​opponent-process     theory

 

d.

​kodak theory

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Analyze

 

REFERENCES:  

Color Vision

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 –     Explain the main features of color vision.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

54. Difficulty distinguishing between ____ and ____ is the   most common form of color vision deficiency.​

 

a.

​blue; yellow

 

b.

​green; blue

 

c.

​red; green

 

d.

​red; blue

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Color Vision

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 –     Explain the main features of color vision.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

55. The ability of some women to detect slightly finer   discriminations of color than other women is most likely due to having   ____.​

 

a.

​two types of     long-wavelength cones

 

b.

​more     short-wavelength cones

 

c.

​shorter optic     nerves

 

d.

​a larger cortex

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Color Vision

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 –     Explain the main features of color vision.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

56. The most common form of color vision deficiency is due   to ____.​

 

a.

​poor eyesight

 

b.

​malformation of     area V4 in the brain

 

c.

​complete absence of     one of the types of cones

 

d.

​long- and     medium-wavelength cones making the same photopigment

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Color Vision

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 –     Explain the main features of color vision.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

57. ____ cells axons make up the optic nerve.​

 

a.

​Horizontal

 

b.

​Amacrine

 

c.

​Bipolar

 

d.

​Ganglion

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

An Overview of the     Mammalian Visual System

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

58. In foveal vision, ____.​

 

a.

​each ganglion cell     excited by many receptors

 

b.

​ganglion cells     respond poorly to color vision

 

c.

​ganglion cells     respond well to dim light

 

d.

​each ganglion cell     is excited by a single cone

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

An Overview of the     Mammalian Visual System

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

59. The optic nerves from the right and left eye initially   meet at the ____.​

 

a.

​optic chiasm

 

b.

​lateral geniculate     nucleus

 

c.

​hypothalamus

 

d.

​cerebral cortex

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

An Overview of the     Mammalian Visual System

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

60. Where does the optic nerve send most of its   information?​

 

a.

​directly to the     cerebral cortex

 

b.

​to the lateral     geniculate

 

c.

​to the superior     colliculus

 

d.

​directly to the     occipital lobe

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

An Overview of the     Mammalian Visual System

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

61. The lateral geniculate nucleus is part of the ____.​

 

a.

​cerebral cortex

 

b.

​superior colliculus

 

c.

​inferior colliculus

 

d.

​thalamus

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

An Overview of the     Mammalian Visual System

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

62. Branches of the optic nerve go directly to what areas   of the brain?​

 

a.

​lateral geniculate     and cerebral cortex

 

b.

​superior colliculus     and cerebral cortex

 

c.

​lateral geniculate     and superior colliculus

 

d.

​prefrontal cortex     and occipital lobe

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

An Overview of the     Mammalian Visual System

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

63. In the visual system, the ____ and ____ constantly feed   information back and forth.​

 

a.

​thalamus; cortex

 

b.

​thalamus; inferior     geniculate

 

c.

​inferior     colliculus; thalamus

 

d.

​thalamus; lateral     colliculus

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Analyze

 

REFERENCES:  

An Overview of the     Mammalian Visual System

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

64. Cutting the left optic nerve in front of the optic   chiasm would result in blindness in the ____.​

 

a.

​right eye

 

b.

​left eye

 

c.

​peripheral vision     of both eyes

 

d.

​left visual field

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Analyze

 

REFERENCES:  

An Overview of the     Mammalian Visual System

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

65. The enhancement of contrast at the edge of an object is   the result of ____.​

 

a.

​lateral inhibition     in the retina

 

b.

​the diffraction of     light from the edge’s surface

 

c.

​fatigue of the rods     and cones

 

d.

​the color of the     object

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Processing in the     Retina

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.05 –     Explain lateral inhibition in terms of the connections among neurons in the     retina.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

66. In the vertebrate retina, which cells are responsible   for lateral inhibition?​

 

a.

​horizontal cells

 

b.

​ganglion cells

 

c.

​bipolar cells

 

d.

​glial cells

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Processing in the     Retina

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.05 –     Explain lateral inhibition in terms of the connections among neurons in the     retina.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

67. Horizontal cells receive their input from ____, and   they send output to ____.​

 

a.

​rods and cones;     ganglion cells

 

b.

​rods and cones;     bipolar cells

 

c.

​bipolar cells;     ganglion cells

 

d.

​cones; rods

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Processing in the     Retina

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.05 –     Explain lateral inhibition in terms of the connections among neurons in the     retina.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

68. Suppose someone has a genetic defect that prevents the   formation of horizontal cells in the retina. Which visual phenomenon is   most likely to be impaired?​

 

a.

​lateral inhibition

 

b.

​movement perception

 

c.

​dark adaptation

 

d.

​size constancy

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Analyze

 

REFERENCES:  

Processing in the Retina

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.05 –     Explain lateral inhibition in terms of the connections among neurons in the     retina.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

69. What is responsible for sharpening contrast at visual   borders?​

 

a.

​receptive fields

 

b.

​lateral inhibition

 

c.

​retinal disparity

 

d.

​the direction in     which the light shines

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Processing in the     Retina

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.05 –     Explain lateral inhibition in terms of the connections among neurons in the     retina.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

70. The receptive field of a receptor is the ____.​

 

a.

​point at which the     optic nerve exits the retina

 

b.

​axon hillock

 

c.

​point in space from     which light strikes the receptor

 

d.

​point where light     shines on, and excites, the visual cortex

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Further Processing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 –     Define and give examples of receptive fields.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

71. The point in space from which light strikes the   receptor is called the ____.​

 

a.

​stimulus field

 

b.

​convergence field

 

c.

​receptive field

 

d.

​bipolar area

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Analyze

 

REFERENCES:  

Further Processing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 –     Define and give examples of receptive fields.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain Processes     Visual Information

 

72. The ____ of any neuron in the visual system is the area   of the visual field that excites or inhibits it.​

 

a.

​stimulus field

 

b.

​convergence field

 

c.

​receptive field

 

d.

​bipolar field

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Analyze

 

REFERENCES:  

Further Processing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 –     Define and give examples of receptive fields.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

73. The ability to detect movement better than color in our   peripheral vision is largely due to ____.​

 

a.

​magnocellular     neurons in the periphery

 

b.

​parvocellular     neurons tightly packed in the periphery

 

c.

​no cones in the     periphery

 

d.

​the strength of the     eye muscles

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Further Processing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

74. Parvocellular neurons most likely receive input from   ____.​

 

a.

​magnocellular     neurons

 

b.

​rods

 

c.

​bipolar cells that     receive input from cones

 

d.

​the periphery of     the retina

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Analyze

 

REFERENCES:  

Further Processing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

75. Being able to detect fine details of a color painting would   depend most on which type of ganglion cells?​

 

a.

​parvocellular

 

b.

​magnocellular

 

c.

​koniocellular

 

d.

​kodacellular

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Analyze

 

REFERENCES:  

Further Processing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

76. Axons from the lateral geniculate extend to which area   of the cerebral cortex?​

 

a.

​precentral gyrus

 

b.

​postcentral gyrus

 

c.

​prefrontal cortex

 

d.

​occipital lobe

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Further Processing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

77. The primary visual cortex sends its information ____.​

 

a.

​to the lateral     geniculate nucleus

 

b.

​to area V1

 

c.

​to area V2

 

d.

​back to the retina

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Primary Visual     Cortex

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

78. Cortical area ____ appears to be where conscious visual   perception occurs.​

 

a.

​V4

 

b.

​V3

 

c.

​V2

 

d.

​V1

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Primary Visual     Cortex

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

79. The primary visual cortex is also known as the ____.​

 

a.

​lateral geniculate     nucleus

 

b.

​striate cortex

 

c.

​area V2

 

d.

​parvocellular area

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Primary Visual     Cortex

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

80. Visual information from the lateral geniculate area   goes to the ____.​

 

a.

​retina

 

b.

​primary visual     cortex

 

c.

​thalamus

 

d.

​hypothalamus

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Primary Visual     Cortex

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

81. Blindsight refers to ____.​

 

a.

​the ability to     localize visual objects within an apparently blind visual field

 

b.

​the ability to     merge together information from both eyes even though they do not see     the exact same picture

 

c.

​improved hearing     and touch in blind people

 

d.

​the inability to     see flashing light

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Primary Visual     Cortex

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 –     Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired     motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

82. Once information is sent to the secondary visual   cortex, it ____.​

 

a.

​has reached its     final processing destination

 

b.

​may return to the     primary visual cortex

 

c.

​goes mostly to the     primary motor cortex

 

d.

​is sent back to the     retina

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Primary Visual     Cortex

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

83. Once within the cerebral cortex, the magnocellular   pathway continues, with a ventral branch sensitive to ____.​

 

a.

​details of shape

 

b.

​facial features

 

c.

​movement

 

d.

​brightness

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Further Processing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

84. Once within the cerebral cortex, the magnocellular   pathway continues, with a dorsal branch important for ____.​

 

a.

​details of shape

 

b.

​color and     brightness

 

c.

​movement

 

d.

​integrating vision     with action

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Further Processing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

85. Once within the cerebral cortex, a mixed pathway of   magnocellular and parvocellular cells is important for ____.​

 

a.

​brightness and     color

 

b.

​integrating vision     with action

 

c.

​details of shape

 

d.

​distinguishing     facial features

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Further Processing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

86. The visual paths in the temporal cortex collectively   are referred to as the ____.​

 

a.

​ventral stream

 

b.

​dorsal stream

 

c.

​lateral stream

 

d.

​magnoparvocellular     pathway

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Ventral and     Dorsal Paths

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04

 

87. The visual path in the parietal cortex is referred to   as the ____.​

 

a.

​ventral stream

 

b.

​dorsal stream

 

c.

​parvocellular     pathway

 

d.

​magnocellular     pathway

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Ventral and     Dorsal Paths

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.3 Parallel     Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

88. Damage to the ventral stream may interfere with ____.​

 

a.

​the ability to     describe the shape or size of an object

 

b.

​walking toward     something seen

 

c.

​reaching to grasp     an object

 

d.

​perceiving whether     the lights are on or off

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Ventral and     Dorsal Paths

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 –     Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired     motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.3 Parallel     Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

89. Damage to the dorsal stream may interfere with ____.​

 

a.

​describing what is     seen

 

b.

​perceiving the     movement of an object

 

c.

​remembering     something seen at a previous time

 

d.

​reaching out to     grasp an object

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Ventral and     Dorsal Paths

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 –     Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired     motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.3 Parallel     Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

90. What is the shape of the receptive field to which a   simple cell in the primary visual cortex responds?​

 

a.

​circle of a particular     radius

 

b.

​circle with a hole     in the middle

 

c.

​bar in a particular     orientation

 

d.

​bar of a particular     length

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Primary Visual     Cortex

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 –     Define and give examples of receptive fields.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

91. What type of cell responds to a pattern of light in a   particular orientation anywhere within its large receptive field,   regardless of the exact location of the stimulus?​

 

a.

​simple

 

b.

​complex

 

c.

​bipolar

 

d.

​ganglion

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Primary Visual     Cortex

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 –     Define and give examples of receptive fields.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

92. Which cell responds most strongly to a stimulus moving   perpendicular to its axis?​

 

a.

​simple

 

b.

​complex

 

c.

​lateral geniculate

 

d.

​ganglion

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Primary Visual     Cortex

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 –     Define and give examples of receptive fields.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

93. What is one way to determine whether a given cell in   the primary visual cortex is “simple” or “complex”?​

 

a.

​the shape of its     receptive field

 

b.

​whether its     receptive field is monocular or binocular

 

c.

​whether it can     respond equally to lines in more than one location

 

d.

​whether it is     sensitive to the orientation of the stimulus

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Primary Visual     Cortex

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 –     Define and give examples of receptive fields.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

94. The one additional feature that hypercomplex cells have   that complex cells do not is that hypercomplex cells ____.​

 

a.

​respond to their     receptive field faster

 

b.

​have a strong     inhibitory area at one end of its receptive field

 

c.

​have receptive     fields that are triangular

 

d.

​respond to bars of     light in more than one orientation

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Primary Visual     Cortex

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 –     Define and give examples of receptive fields.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

95. ____ respond to a particular feature of a stimulus.​

 

a.

​Hypercomplex cells

 

b.

​Magnocellular cells

 

c.

​Feature detectors

 

d.

​Shape detectors

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Primary Visual     Cortex

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 –     Define and give examples of receptive fields.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain Processes     Visual Information

 

96. V1 neurons would be most strongly activated by viewing   ____.​

 

a.

​the letter T

 

b.

​a circle

 

c.

​repeating stripes     on a flag

 

d.

​a single bar of     light

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Analyze

 

REFERENCES:  

The Primary Visual     Cortex

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 –     Define and give examples of receptive fields.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

97. Which structure has the largest receptive fields and   the greatest preferential sensitivity to highly complex visual patterns,   such as faces?​

 

a.

​inferior temporal     cortex

 

b.

​superior colliculus

 

c.

​lateral geniculate

 

d.

​striate cortex

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Primary Visual     Cortex

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 –     Define and give examples of receptive fields.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

98. Cells in the inferior temporal cortex that are   sensitive to a particular shape are also likely to respond to the   shape’s ____.​

 

a.

​figure-ground     reversal

 

b.

​color

 

c.

​motion

 

d.

​mirror-reversal

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Primary Visual     Cortex

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 –     Define and give examples of receptive fields.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

99. An inability to recognize objects despite otherwise   satisfactory vision is called ____.​

 

a.

​visual agnosia

 

b.

​blindsight

 

c.

​prosopagnosia

 

d.

​hemianopsia

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Detailed Analysis of     Shape

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 –     Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired     motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.3 Parallel     Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

100. To what does “shape constancy” refer?​

 

a.

​All neurons within     a single column have the same shape of dendritic tree.

 

b.

​We can recognize     objects even at different orientations.

 

c.

​Objects described     from memory appear more symmetrical than in reality.

 

d.

​We see certain     shapes the same way throughout our lives regardless of age.

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Detailed Analysis of     Shape

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.3 Parallel     Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

101. A person with visual agnosia is unable to ____.​

 

a.

​perceive colors

 

b.

​point to objects

 

c.

​recognize visual     objects

 

d.

​see

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Detailed Analysis of     Shape

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 –     Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired     motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.3 Parallel     Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

102. Someone with prosopagnosia has difficulty with ____.​

 

a.

​focusing on colored     objects

 

b.

​seeing items     located in the left visual field

 

c.

​recognizing faces

 

d.

​processing     information from more than one sensory modality at a time

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Detailed Analysis of     Shape

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 –     Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired     motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.3 Parallel     Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

103. In addition to having difficulty recognizing faces,   people with prosopagnosia may have difficulty____.​

 

a.

​reading

 

b.

​with all types of     memory

 

c.

​recognizing colors

 

d.

​recognizing     different kinds of plants and animals

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Detailed Analysis of     Shape

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 –     Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired     motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.3 Parallel     Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

104. Area ____ is particularly important for color   constancy.​

 

a.

​V1

 

b.

​V2

 

c.

​V3

 

d.

​V4

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Color Perception

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.3 Parallel     Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

105. When cells in the middle temporal cortex respond to   visual stimuli, their response depends mostly on the ____.​

 

a.

​speed and direction     of movement

 

b.

​exact shape of the     object

 

c.

​color and     brightness of the object

 

d.

​exact location of     the object in visual space

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Motion Perception

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.3 Parallel     Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

106. Damage to the magnocellular pathway would most likely   lead to the loss of ____.​

 

a.

​color vision

 

b.

​shape perception

 

c.

​color constancy

 

d.

​motion perception

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Motion Perception

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 –     Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired     motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.3 Parallel Processing     in the Visual Cortex

 

107. Which of the following would be easiest for someone   who is motion blind?​

 

a.

​dressing themselves

 

b.

​driving a car

 

c.

​taking the dog for     a walk

 

d.

​filling a pitcher     with water

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Analyze

 

REFERENCES:  

Motion Perception

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 –     Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired     motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.3 Parallel     Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

108. Human newborns come into the world predisposed to pay   more attention to ____ than any other stationary displays.​

 

a.

​toys

 

b.

​balloons

 

c.

​faces

 

d.

​dogs

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Detailed Analysis of     Shape

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.07 –     Describe research on how experiences alter development of the visual     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.3 Parallel     Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

109. Cortical neurons in the visual cortex of a kitten or a   cat will lose the ability to respond to stimuli in one eye if the eye is   sutured shut for ____.​

 

a.

​the first week     after birth

 

b.

​the first month of     life

 

c.

​any two month     period in adult life

 

d.

​the third and     fourth months of life

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Development of the     Visual Cortex

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.07 –     Describe research on how experiences alter development of the visual     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

110. Stereoscopic depth perception requires the brain to   detect ____.​

 

a.

​amblyopia

 

b.

​retinal disparity

 

c.

​strabismus

 

d.

​contrasting imagery

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Development of the     Visual Cortex

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

111. In depth perception, different views are received by   each eye, depending on the distance of the object being viewed. What is   this called?​

 

a.

​retinal disparity

 

b.

​amblyopic     differential

 

c.

​astigmatic contrast

 

d.

​contrasting imagery

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Development of the     Visual Cortex

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

112. What is strabismus?​

 

a.

​a failure of the     two eyes to focus on the same thing at the same time

 

b.

​a blurring of     vision caused by asymmetrical curvature of the eye

 

c.

​stereoscopic depth     perception

 

d.

​the ability to     perceive a flashing light as if it were a moving object

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Development of the     Visual Cortex

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 –     Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired     motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

113. Astigmatism refers to the ____.​

 

a.

​sensitive period     for development of vision

 

b.

​ability to see     horizontal and vertical lines

 

c.

​asymmetric     curvature of eyes

 

d.

​inability to detect     motion

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Development of the     Visual Cortex

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 –     Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired     motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

114. Infants with cataracts need to have surgical repair   ____.​

 

a.

​as early as     possible

 

b.

​before they begin     school

 

c.

​if it does not fix     itself

 

d.

​when they are old     enough to recover from surgery

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Development of the     Visual Cortex

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.07 –     Describe research on how experiences alter development of the visual     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

115. What would be the likely outcome of a person who was   blind at birth, and had vision restored later in life by the removal of   cataracts (clouded lenses)?​

 

a.

​quick development     of normal vision

 

b.

​trouble describing     the shapes of objects

 

c.

​trouble identifying     the location of light

 

d.

​inability to use     touch and sound cues to maneuver around in a building

 

ANSWER:  

 

 

 

 

 

Essay

 

116. Describe the trichromatic,   opponent-process, and retinex theories of color vision.​

 

ANSWER:  

 

 

 

 

 

117. What is prosopagnosia?​

 

ANSWER:  

 

 

 

 

 

118. Describe the functional and anatomic differences   between rods and cones.​

 

ANSWER:  

 

 

 

 

 

119. ​Describe the difference between parvocellular and   magnocellular neurons and pathways.

 

ANSWER:  

 

 

 

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

120. Describe the key functions of the major pathways in   the visual cortex.​

 

ANSWER:  

 

 

 

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