New And Precise Stress

New And Precise Stress

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Article 1

DOUBLE-ENTRY RESEARCH ORGANIZER
Citation Information

Schönfeld, Pia, et al. “The effects of daily stress on positive and negative mental health: Mediation through self-efficacy.” International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology 16.1 (2016): 1-10.

Where I Found This Source

PsychINFO was the database in which I located this source

Key Passage

A key passage from this source is “While stress is recognized as an important risk factor, not all people who experience stress, experience impaired mental health … the strength of the association between stress and mental state depends on characteristics and strategies that differentiate individuals from one another” (Schönfeld, Brailovskaia and Bieda 3)

Unpacking the Passage

A number of research studies suggest that people with stress have a higher likelihood of developing mental health conditions such as depression, anxiety, PTSD, and schizophrenia among other conditions. Nevertheless, these research studies tend to generalize the effects of stress on mental health without taking into consideration the individual differences that may affect the prognosis of stress to mental illness.

Why and how is the passage important and relevant to my argument? My thoughts:

This passage is indeed relevant to my argument because it challenges the prevailing notion that all people with stress will end is developing mental illnesses. Many theoretical and empirical studies that investigate the relationship between stress and mental illnesses fail to consider factors such as self-efficacy, coping mechanisms, support networks, and environmental factors that may mediate the transition from stress to mental illness. As such, these studies end up implicating stress as the main trigger for making people susceptible to develop mental conditions such as chronic depression and schizophrenia. Examining the mediating variables is important for creating a strong, evidence-based argument as well as understanding the underlying connections between stress and mental illness.

Article 2

DOUBLE-ENTRY RESEARCH ORGANIZER
Citation Information

Toussaint, Loren, et al. “Effects of lifetime stress exposure on mental and physical health in young adulthood: How stress degrades and forgiveness protects health.” Journal of Health Psychology 21.6 (2016): 1004–1014.

Where I Found This Source

The database from which I retrieved this source is CINAHL

Key Passage

A key passage in this article comes from the authors who claim, “One factor that may influence the effects that cumulative stress exposure has on health is forgiveness” (Toussaint, Shields and Dorn 1005)

Unpacking the Passage

People strive to mitigate stress and lead happy lives through initiating various coping strategies or mechanisms. While various coping strategies such as enrollment in behavioral therapy programs have received widespread attention, not much research has focused on aspects such as forgiveness in shielding people from the detrimental effects of stress. As an emotion-focused coping process, forgiveness can help people to manage the negative emotional and psychological experiences evoked by stress.

Why and how is the passage important and relevant to my argument? My thoughts:

Discussions about coping with stress form a central element in my argument. As such, this passage is very relevant to my research because it identifies a powerful, yet often overlooked coping mechanism that can help individuals to deal with stress. As Toussaint, Shields and Dorn (1006) point out, forgiveness is a powerful stress alleviation tool because it releases the grip that emotions such as anger and resentment have on the mind, body, and soul. Reductions in stress perceptions may aid in explaining the relationship between forgiveness and improved overall health. Another factor that makes this passage and article important and relevant to my argument is because it measured the severity of lifetime exposure to stress, which is unlike many other studies that only explore early or adulthood exposure to stress. The approach taken by the researchers will be critical for gaining a deeper understanding of the relationships between stress, health, and other intangible constructs such as forgiveness.

Article 3

DOUBLE-ENTRY RESEARCH ORGANIZER
Citation Information

Yaribeygi, Habib, Yunes Panahi and Hedayat Sahraei. “The impact of stress on body function: A review.” EXCLI Journal 16 (2017): 1057–1072.

Where I Found This Source

Source Retrieved from Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

Key Passage

The authors of this review affirm that stress “can exert various actions on the body ranging from alterations in homeostasis to life-threatening effects and death … stress can be either a triggering or aggravating factor for many diseases and pathological conditions” (Yaribeygi, Panahi and Sahraei 1058).

Unpacking the Passage

This information matters because it highlights the overall consequences that stress can have on various organs of the body. The alterations in homeostasis, for example, can alter the functioning of vital body systems including the central nervous system, the endocrine system, the gastrointestinal system as well as the neurologic system, all of which are vital for the optimal functioning of the individual. Unlike many other studies, this passage also underscores the reality that stress, if left unmanaged, can directly contribute to death.

Why and how is the passage important and relevant to my argument? My thoughts:

This passage will find direct application in my argument. It will form the foundation of underscoring the detrimental effects that stress can have on the various parts of the human body. Important aspects highlighted in the passage that will form the foundation for my argument include the relationship between stress and cognition, stress and memory, stress and brain function abnormalities, stress and the immune system functions, stress and cardiovascular system function, as well as stress and the endocrine system. The passage will also serve as a foundation for looking at effective interventions that individuals can implement to reduce the life-threatening effects of stress including death.

Article 4

DOUBLE-ENTRY RESEARCH ORGANIZER
Citation Information

Kaplan, Sue, Vivienne Patricia Madden and Todor Mijanovich. “The perception of stress and its impact on health in poor communities.” Journal of Community Health 93.5 (2012): 1698-1708.

Where I Found This Source

Source obtained from CINAHL database

Key Passage

A key passage in this article comes from focus group participants who described “a direct causal pathway between stress and poor health as well as an indirect pathway through health behaviors, including uncontrolled eating, sleep deprivation, substance abuse, smoking, violence and aggression, and withdrawal and inactivity” (Kaplan, Madden and Mijanovich 1703)

Unpacking the Passage

Coming from a poor neighborhood increases the susceptibility of people to develop stress. This may result from issues such as lack of basic resources, increased crime in such neighborhoods, and lack of employment opportunities among other factors. Due to the stress experienced by people from poverty-stricken neighborhoods, some may result to self-destructive behaviors such as drug abuse, prostitution, and crime, all of which can further aggravate their stress and increase their likelihood of developing emotional and psychological problems including depression.

Why and how is the passage important and relevant to my argument? My thoughts:

The aforementioned passages, coming from the real life accounts of residents from a poor community in southern Bronx whom the researchers held focus groups with, is indeed relevant and important to my argument. Socioeconomic status (SES) can be a major predictor not only of the incidence of stress but also the ability of the affected individual to deal with the repercussions of their stress. For example, people with low SES may lack the appropriate financial resources that they require to enroll into programs designed to help people with stress. Because of the lack of such resources, the effects that stress can have on such individuals tends to be much greater compared to people from higher socioeconomic status. Understanding the role of disparities in stress incidence and progression is thus important. It will also be a central focus of my argument.

Article 5

DOUBLE-ENTRY RESEARCH ORGANIZER
Citation Information

American Psychological Association. “How stress affects your health.” 2013. <https://www.apa.org/helpcenter/stress.aspx>.

Where I Found This Source

Document retrieved from the American Psychological Association Website

Key Passage

The APA affirms, “when stress starts interfering with your ability to live a normal life for an extended period, it becomes even more dangerous. The longer the stress lasts, the worse it is for both your mind and body” (par. 7)

Unpacking the Passage

This passage shows the reality that stress exists in various forms based on the degree of the stressor. Some of these types of stress include stress as a natural reaction, acute stress, and chronic stress. While the effects of acute stress may be moderate such as feeling fatigue and being unable to concentrate, chronic stress can have far dire consequences including increased cardiovascular risk and neurological disorders. To prevent such risks, it is important to seek help for the stress as early as possible.

Why and how is the passage important and relevant to my argument? My thoughts:

This passage is indeed important and relevant to my argument. This is because it has provided a solid foundation for understanding the different effects of the varying severity of stress. The article is also relevant since it emphasizes on the need for prompt intervention to manage the potentially life-threatening consequences of stress. Some of such interventions can include building strong relationships, engaging in relaxation techniques, exercising regularly, and seeking professional help from counselors or psychologists. All the aforementioned information will be useful in cementing the claims in my arguments.

Article 6

DOUBLE-ENTRY RESEARCH ORGANIZER
Citation Information

Herman, James, Mouna Maroun and Gal Richter-Levin. “Good stress, bad stress and very bad stress.” Stress: The International Journal on the Biology of Stress 18.3 (2015): 267-268.

Where I Found This Source

This source cane from EBSCOhost database

Key Passage

“What is of most importance is preventing good stress from becoming bad stress” (Herman, Maroun and Richter-Levin 267)

Unpacking the Passage

The information provided in this passage is of utmost importance. For many people, the term stress has a negative connotation. However, this study by Herman, Maroun and Richter-Levin (267) reveals that stress, while in many instances can be harmful, it can also have some benefits. For example, as the researchers vividly point out, graded exposure and stressors associated with change can have positive ramifications such as improving the temperament of the individual experiencing the stressor.

Why and how is the passage important and relevant to my argument? My thoughts:

This passage is important and relevant to my argument because of various reasons. First, there has always been the misconception that stress is entirely bad for the physical, emotional, and psychological wellbeing of the individual. This passage demystifies this myth and confirms that some level of stress can have positive implications on the health of the individual as long as the individual does not let the good stress to transform into bad stress. I believe that the passage will find direct application in my research since it will provide an effective counterargument that can contribute to understanding the overall consequences of stress including both the positives and the negatives.

Works Cited

American Psychological Association. “How stress affects your health.” 2013. <https://www.apa.org/helpcenter/stress.aspx>. Web.

Herman, James, Mouna Maroun and Gal Richter-Levin. “Good stress, bad stress and very bad stress.” Stress: The International Journal on the Biology of Stress 18.3 (2015): 267-268.

Kaplan, Sue, Vivienne Patricia Madden and Todor Mijanovich. “The perception of stress and its impact on health in poor communities.” Journal of Community Health 93.5 (2012): 1698-1708.

Schönfeld, Pia, et al. “The effects of daily stress on positive and negative mental health: Mediation through self-efficacy.” International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology 16.1 (2016): 1-10.

Toussaint, Loren, et al. “Effects of lifetime stress exposure on mental and physical health in young adulthood: How stress degrades and forgiveness protects health.” Journal of Health Psychology 21.6 (2016): 1004–1014.

Yaribeygi, Habib, Yunes Panahi and Hedayat Sahraei. “The impact of stress on body function: A review.” EXCLI Journal 16 (2017): 1057–1072.

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