Structures located relatively toward the tail of a four-legged animal are referred to as​

PSY 210 – QUIZ 1

 

1. Structures located relatively toward the tail of a four-legged animal are referred to as​

a. ​rostral.
b. ​caudal.
c. ​dorsal.
d. ​ventral.

 

2. Structures located relatively toward the belly of a four-legged animal are referred to as​

a. ​rostral.
b. ​caudal.
c. ​dorsal.
d. ​ventral.

 

 

3. A dog’s ears are __________ relative to its tail.​

a. ​rostral
b. ​caudal
c. ​dorsal
d. ​ventral

 

 

4. Which of the following pairs of terms mean the same thing?​

a. ​ventral—superior
b. ​dorsal—inferior
c. ​rostral—anterior
d. ​caudal—ipsilateral

 

 

5. An imaginary line that runs the length of the spinal cord to the front of the brain is known as the​

a. ​sagittal slice.
b. ​proximal.
c. ​neuraxis.
d. ​plane of section.

 

 

6. ​The most common type of glia in the brain is the

a. ​astrocyte.
b. oligodendrocyte.​
c. ​Schwann cell.
d. ​microglia.

 

 

7. ​A structural matrix for neurons is provided by

a. ​astrocytes.
b. ​oligodendrocytes.
c. ​Schwann cells.
d. ​microglia.

 

 

8. ​The glia that participate in the formation of the blood-brain barrier are the

a. ​astrocytes.
b. ​oligodendrocytes.
c. ​Schwann cells.
d. ​microglia.

 

 

9. ​An important function of the astrocytes is to regulate the chemical environment of the synaptic gap. In particular, the astrocytes remove excess amounts of which of the following chemicals from the gap?

a. ​magnesium
b. ​potassium
c. ​sodium
d. ​tetrodotoxin

 

 

10. ​Following injury, which of the glia may actually inhibit neural regrowth by forming scar tissue?

a. ​astrocytes
b. ​oligodendrocytes
c. ​Schwann cells
d. ​microglia

 

 

11. ​Which of the following thinkers believed that the ventricles played an important role in transmitting information to and from the brain?

a. ​Aristotle
b. Galen​
c. Descartes​
d. Herophilus​

 

 

12. ​What mistaken notion about the nervous system persisted from ancient times up through the work of some Renaissance thinkers?

a. ​The ventricles play a major role in the transmission of messages in the brain.
b. ​The heart is the organ of intellect.
c. ​Damage to the brain is easily repaired.
d. ​The muscular tremors that characterize epilepsy do not originate in the brain.

 

 

13. ​Monism is defined as a philosophical view that considers

a. ​mind to be the product of activity in the brain.
b. mind and body to be separate entities.​
c. the senses as the source of knowledge.​
d. reality to exist when it enters the thinking of an observer.​

 

 

14. ​According to Descartes, the mind

a. ​is the product of neural activity.
b. ​exists in both human and non-human animals.
c. ​forms an indivisible whole with the body.
d. ​is not a physical entity that can be studied.

 

 

15. ​Descartes’ mind-body dualism is defined as a philosophical view that considers

a. ​mind to be the product of neural activity.
b. mind and body to be separate entities.​
c. reality to exist only when perceived by an observer.​
d. the senses as the source of knowledge.​

 

 

 

16. Rob and his friends were experimenting with the hallucinogenic Amanita mushrooms, and he experienced a sudden drop in blood pressure. Which of the following is the best explanation for Rob’s symptoms?

a. The muscarine in the mushrooms interacted with dopaminergic receptors in Rob’s peripheral nervous system.

b. The nicotine in the mushrooms interacted with cholinergic receptors in Rob’s central nervous system.

c. The muscarine in the mushrooms interacted with cholinergic receptors in Rob’s peripheral nervous system.

d. The muscarine in the mushrooms interacted with cholinergic receptors in Rob’s central nervous system.

17. Muscarinic receptors respond to

a. muscarine, a substance found in tobacco, and acetylcholine.

b. muscarine, a substance found in some mushrooms, and acetylcholine.

c. muscarine, nicotine, and acetylcholine.

d. acetylcholine only.

18. Which of the following statements about nicotinic and muscarinic receptors is true?

a. Nicotinic receptors are ionotropic, whereas muscarinic receptors are metabotropic.

b. Nicotinic receptors are metabotropic, whereas muscarinic receptors are ionotropic.

c. Nicotinic and muscarinic receptors are both ionotropic.

d. Nicotinic and muscarinic receptors are both metabotropic.

19. Which of the following statements accurately describes the locations of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors?

a. Muscarinic and nicotinic receptors are found in both the central and peripheral nervous systems.

b. Muscarinic receptors are found in the central nervous system only, whereas nicotinic receptors are found in the peripheral nervous system only.

c. Nicotinic receptors are found in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, whereas muscarinic receptors are found in the central nervous system only.

d. Muscarinic receptors are found in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, whereas nicotinic receptors are found in the central nervous system only.

 

20. Jessica is worried about the impact of her smoking habit on her health. After studying biological psychology, she knows that nicotine would have an effect on

a. her peripheral nervous system only.

b. her central nervous system only. c. both her peripheral and central nervous systems.

d. neither her peripheral nor central nervous systems, because she only smokes a couple of cigarettes with friends during weekend parties.

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