The ethnographic method relies on

1. The ethnographic method relies on:

a. Letter correspondence with research participants
b. Archival research in libraries
c. Expensive technology
d. Direct immersion of the researcher in the lives of research participants
2. Claude Levi-Strauss suggested that anthropologists often are “marginal” because:

a. They live outside of city limits
b. They are not highly paid
c. They travel a lot
d. They are never completely native to the cultures the study, but also are changed by their immersion in other cultures
3. The ethnocentric fallacy centers around the notion that:

a. The beliefs and behaviors of another culture are superior to one’s own
b. The beliefs and behaviors of all societies are equally right
c. The beliefs and behaviors of one’s own culture are superior to another’s
d. Beliefs and behaviors can never be determined to be right or wrong
4. In developing countries, what percent of death are due to infectious disease?

a. 42
b. 1.2
c. 86
d. 23
5. European encroachment led to the extermination of many indigenous groups in all of the following ways EXCEPT:

a. Depletion of food sources
b. Spread of diseases, such as measles, syphilis, and tuberculosis
c. Physical violence
d. Lack of contact
6. Which of the following was NOT closely linked with the growth of the cotton industry in the United States in the 19th century?

a. The forced removal of Native American groups
b. Slavery
c. The invention of the cotton gin
d. The invention of the Model-T
7. Which of the following phrases does NOT describe the economic philosophy of neoliberalism?

a. Strong role of individual entrepreneurs in free markets and free trade
b. Minimal government involvement in the economy
c. Strong government involvement in the economy
d. Accelerated economic growth
In societies in all times and places, money has constituted the distinct material symbol or activity that defines what its members need for well-being and happiness.

 a. True
 b. False
9. In his book, Bowling Alone, Robert Putnam attributes all of the following factors to the decline of social capital EXCEPT:

a. Advent of electronic entertainment, especially television
b. The replacement of a civic generation with a less-involved generation
c. Increasing suburban sprawl that creates communities without centers
d. Increase in the number of letters being sent through the postal system
The Wizard of OzThe Lord of the Rings, and Star Wars all feature very different key scenarios.

 a. True
 b. False
11. The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis suggests each of the following EXCEPT:

a. Vocabulary reflects a person’s social and physical environment
b. The language a person speaks dictates what a person thinks and is the sole factor in determining a society’s cultural practices
c. The grammar of a language points to the mode of thought characteristic of its speakers
d. Language can reinforce and influence our view of the world
12. E.E. Evans-Pritchard suggested which term for people’s attempts to explain away inconsistencies or contradictions in their beliefs?

a. Consistency strategies
b. Dissonance alignment
c. Cognitive manipulation
d. Secondary elaboration
Divorce is rare in Trobriand Islander society.

 a. True
 b. False
14. In traditional China, marriage has less to do with the relationship between the husband and the wife, and more to do with the relationship between:

a. The mother and the child
b. The wife’s family and the son-in-law
c. The husband’s family and the daughter-in-law
d. The husband and the wife’s brother
15. Those who practice matrilineal kinship trace their descent:

a. Through their sisters
b. On their father’s side only
c. On their mother’s side only
d. On both their mother’s and father’s side
Virginity is both valued and necessary for a traditional Chinese bridge.

 a. True
 b. False
17. In Northern Ireland, ________ is one of the most important markers of group identity.

a. Ethnic group membership
b. Family membership
c. Religious affiliation
d. Gender
A person’s social identity is formed independently of other people’s reactions and perceptions.

 a. True
 b. False
Before the spread of industrial and commercial capitalism, commodities were personalized and people often knew their histories.

 a. True
 b. False
20. Philippe Bourgois’s research focused on impoverished Puerto Ricans in East Harlem who resisted poverty, racism, and subordination by taking up which trade?

a. Selling crack
b. Shoe mending
c. Stealing cars
d. Automobile repair
In the United States, inherited privileges have been legitimized and the blame for poverty has been laid on the poor in order to prevent the reworking of social and economic policies that maintain social hierarchies.

 a. True
 b. False
22. All of the following are structural factors that contribute to the maintenance of huge gaps in wealth and well-being in Western societies EXCEPT:

a. Devaluing of labor
b. Debt
c. New racism
d. Personal choice
Many societies call on religion to frame collective violence as a cosmic struggle between good and evil.

 a. True
 b. False
24. Seventeenth-century philosopher Thomas Hobbes saw humans as driven by ________, and having a natural inclination for ________.

a. Greed; violence
b. Kindness; peace
c. Compassion; communal living
d. Pettiness; bickering
25. ________ is purposeful, organized, and socially sanctioned combat involving killing.

a. Diaspora
b. Feud or war
c. Manslaughter

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