The Truman Doctrine was written by President Woodrow Wilson in 1918.

Read the passages.

The Truman Doctrine was written by President Woodrow Wilson in 1918. The document addressed the causes of the war and made proposals that would ensure world peace.

excerpt from President Wilson’s Fourteen Points

I. Open covenants of peace… no private international understandings of any kind, but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view…

II. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside territorial waters, alike in peace and in war…

III. The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the establishment of an equality of trade conditions among all the nations…

IV. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety…

V. A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims…

VI. The evacuation of all Russian territory and… a sincere welcome into the society of free nations under institutions of her own choosing…

VII. Belgium… must be evacuated and restored, without any attempt to limit the sovereignty which she enjoys in common with all other free nations…

VIII. All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored…

IX. A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along clearly recognizable lines of nationality…

X. The peoples of Austria-Hungary, whose place among the nations we wish to see safeguarded and assured, should be accorded the freest opportunity of autonomous development…

XI. Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro should be evacuated, occupied territories restored…

XII. [N]ationalities which are now under Turkish rule should be assured an undoubted security of life and an absolutely unmolested opportunity of autonomous development…

XIII. An independent Polish state should be erected which should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish populations…

XIV. A general association of nations must be formed… for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small States alike…

covenant: a formal and binding agreement between two or more parties

evacuate: to withdraw foreign military forces

autonomous: self-governing

unmolested: free from disturbance or interference

Based on points 1-5, what did Wilson consider to be the key to lasting peace?

  • free and open trade and diplomacy among nations
  • the adoption of a democratic system of government throughout Europe
  • the giving up of claims to independent national power
  • the division of the world’s nations and oceans into separate spheres of dominance for separate powerful nations
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