Which of the following findings raises doubt about Chomsky’s assumption that grammatical knowledge is innately determined?
a. Adults and adolescents have more difficulty acquiring a second language than young children
b. Complete mastery of some grammatical forms is not achieved until well into middle childhood.
c. Chimpanzees learn to communicate through sign language and symbols.
d. As children acquire language, the brain becomes increasingly specialized for language processing
According to Erikson, children learn how to cooperate with others during the __________ stage.
a. basic trust versus mistrust
b. autonomy versus shame and doubt
c. initiative versus guilt
d. industry versus inferiority
By the end of the first year, babies become increasingly skilled at
a. establishing an internal working model.
b. joint attention
c. social smiling.
d. labeling their feelings.
Societal order responsibilities that were once a function of the family are now assumed by
b. political and legal institutions.
c. farms and stores
1. Valerie is a college student studying to become a speech/language pathologist. In one of her classes, she is learning about the rules that govern the structure and sequencing of speech sounds. Valerie is studying
In contrast to Freud, Erikson:
a. viewed children as taking a more active role in their own development
b. recognized the lifespan nature of development
c. minimized the role of culture in individual development
d. focused on the impact of early experiences on later behavior.
Mr. Garcia is often impatient and uses harsh discipline with his 4-year-old son, Liam. Liam, in turn, is aggressive and rebellious. This example illustrates a(n) __________ influence on development.
One important criticism of behaviorism is that it
a. cannot be effectively applied to infants or to small children
b. underestimates children’s contributions to their own development
c. only works in the laboratory, not in children’s everyday lives.
d. puts too much emphasis on children’s genetic traits.
In Piaget’s concrete operational stage, children
a. consider all possible outcomes in a scientific problem.
b. develop the capacity for abstract thinking.
c. reason with symbols that do not refer to real-world objects.
d. transform cognition into logical reasoning.
Traditional behaviorists like Watson concluded that __________ is the supreme force in development.
d. make-believe play