Ways to Prevent the Development of Cancer
“Hook: Over 1.5 million new cases are diagnosed and over half a million individuals die from cancer yearly (LoConte et al., 2018). Therefore, there is a need to stop the prevalence of this dreaded ailment.
Background Information: Cancer is a medical condition characterized by the limitless multiplication of abnormal cells in any body part. There are over two hundred types of cancerous growths that can affect human beings. However, the most common tumors affect the breasts, prostate glands, lungs, or cervix. Studies indicate that the ailment has several causes, including exposure to substances with high toxicity levels, radioactive materials, or pathogens (LoConte et al., 2018). The genetic condition of individuals is also a significant determinant of whether they contract the disease. Many researchers have carried out investigative studies and compiled information that indicates that individuals can protect themselves from developing tumors through lifestyle transformation (LoConte et al., 2018). The studies suggest that many actions and omissions of humanity increase their susceptibility to cancerous growth (LoConte et al., 2018). Avoiding the risky factors can aid in preventing vulnerability to the condition.
Problem Statement: Cancer is a very deadly disease that attacks various parts of the human body. Over the decades, the disease seems to be spreading at a very alerting rate. Recent statistics show that more than five hundred thousand individuals succumb to the deadly disease yearly. The cause of the spread could be mainly the change of lifestyle due to civilization and capitalism witnessed in Africa and the western world respectively.
Research Questions: How does eating a balanced diet reduce the risk of developing cancerous growth?
Thesis Statement: Proper nutrition and regular screening are the best methods of preventing the spread of cancer. Proper nutrition is the most natural way of developing immunity against the disease. Research scientists have been working on the methods of preventing the spread of cancer and finding immunity against the disease and the above have been found applicable. Furthermore, cancer can be treatable if it is discovered at its early stages.
Hypothesis: It is believed that good nutrition and other factors can prevent the growth of cancer cells
Literature Review: This section provides a review of different sources relating to the topic of study with the aim of determining the gaps that have not been researched on by other scholars. In determining the relevance of the sources to the prevention of cancer, the relationship between nutrition and cancer either in causal perspectives and in protective perspectives will be assessed. Through a thorough analysis of the sources, a research gap will be determined through which this study aims at focusing on.
There is a high correlation between nutrition practices and colorectal cancer where nutrition plays a big part in both the protective role and in causal role. There are various nutrients that are associated with causing colon cancer which includes fat from red and processed meats. In preventing the development of the cancer, dietary rich in fruits and vegetables are recommended (Thanikachalam, 2019).
Nutrition practices have a great role in the development of breast cancer where dietary patterns featured with high intake of unrefined vegetables, cereals, nuts improve survival after diagnosis of breast cancer. Also, low consumption of red meat and saturated fatty acids increases chances of survival after diagnosis of the cancer (De, 2019).
Selenium can be used in preventing the development of cancer in the first place but when supplemented with other nutrients such as Vitamin E. Selenium is a mineral which plays an important role in the protection of the body against damages resulted from oxidative stress. It is also important in metabolism and thyroid function. Selenium is found in foods such as seafoods, Brazil nuts and organ meats in large quantities or other foods such as cereals and muscle meats though in smaller quantities (Vinceti, 2018).
Based in an assessment conducted by the use of the Scored-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA), nutritional practice of an individual has a direct relationship to their risk of developing a given type of cancer. Diets which cause nutritional conditions such as obesity increases the risk of the obese individuals in developing many types of cancer (Jager-Wittenaar, 2017).
Nutritional practices such as the use of the traditional Mediterranean diet is linked with improvement of life quality and longevity through reduction of the risk of most common pathologies such as cancer (Battino, 2019).
Based on the literature review of the existing research work on the relationship between nutrition and the development of cancer, it is evident that there is a need to establish the role of a complete balanced diet on the development of cancer. The study will determine the link between the two variables in the process of supporting ways in which cancer can be prevented through a nutrition practice of using a balanced diet.
Method: For this study, a meta-analysis method was used to synthesize different results found among several studies. The researcher accessed the virtual library through the MRU home page. Then, the researcher accessed the EBSCOhost databases. Once there, the researcher selected both MEDLINE Complete and CINAHL Complete. An advanced search was performed, for which the following keywords were entered in the Boolean search: “cancer”, “prevent”, and “development” The search was limited to references providing full text, peer reviewed, and abstract available. A limitation was set for research published within the last five years, from 2016 to 2021. Additionally, researcher consulted only articles published in English. The search provided access to a total of 605 articles, of which only five (5) studies were selected based on their relevance with the topic; the other 600 were discarded.
Results: For this study, a meta-analysis method was used to synthesize different results found among several studies. The researcher accessed the virtual library through the MRU home page. Then, the researcher accessed the EBSCO host databases. Once there, the researcher selected both MEDLINE Complete and CINAHL Complete. An advanced search was performed, for which the following keywords were entered in the Boolean search: “cancer”, “prevent”, and “development” The search was limited to references providing full text, peer reviewed, and abstract available. A limitation was set for research published within the last five years, from 2016 to 2021. Additionally, researcher consulted only articles published in English. The search provided access to a total of 605 articles, of which only five (5) studies were selected based on their relevance with the topic; the other 600 were discarded.
|Ways to Prevent the Development of Cancer|
|Resource||Criterion 1: Early diagnosis||Criterion 2:Chemoprevention||Criterion 3: Biological prevention|
|Sun et al. (2019)||Highly effective||Partially effective||Highly effective|
|Di Gregorio et al (2016)||Highly effective||Highly effective||Partially effective|
|Pradella (2017)||Highly effective||Partially effective||Highly effective|
|Abu-Naser & Bastami (2016)||Highly effective||Highly effective||Partially effective|
|Lukong (2017)||Highly effective||Highly effective||Partially effective|
Discussion: The criteria of preventing the development of cancer under review include; early diagnosis, chemoprevention and biological prevention. In all the articles, early diagnosis was found to be highly effective in preventing the development of cancer. Chemoprevention was found to be highly effective in all the articles except the one written by sun and Pradella, where the criterion was found to be partially effective. The criterion of biological prevention in preventing the development of cancer was found to be partially effective in all the articles except the one written by Sun, and Pradella. The initially stated hypothesis of the study is, “it is believed that good nutrition and other factors can prevent the growth of cancer cells”. However from this research, it was found that the most effective way of preventing cancer development is early diagnosis, chemoprevention to a lower extent and biological prevention to the lowest extent.
Of the criteria to prevent breast cancer, early diagnosis was found to be the most effective, followed by chemoprevention and the least effective was biological interventions. This seems to counter the initially stated hypothesis, which states that good nutrition and other factors can prevent the growth of cancer cells. Therefore, early diagnosis seems to be the best criteria of preventing cancer because it improves the outcomes of cancer by providing of care at the earliest stage and hence it is the most important strategy in fighting and preventing cancer.