Course Child Psychology
Between eighteen months and two years of age, children’s vocabulary typically increases by a little more than
a. one hundred words.
b. two hundred words.
c. three hundred words.
d. five hundred words.
Paolo has been working in his uncle’s bakery since he was able to walk, and he can double or halve recipes with ease. In the classroom, however, he tends to have difficulty with word problems and equations containing fractions. This is an example of
a. stunted interaction.
b. collaborative learning.
c. situated cognition.
d. a phenomenological variant.
Which of the following statements regarding the beginning of the sensorimotor stage is FALSE?
a. Children in this stage learn about the world through their senses (e.g., hearing, seeing, and tasting).
b. Children in this stage are able to create mental representations of physical objects outside themselves.
c. Children in this stage “think” by making sensory contact with objects.
d. Children in this stage “think” by making motor contact with objects.
Ten-year-old Anne needs to prepare a book report for class tomorrow. Her mother is concerned because Anne is frustrated and seems to need help finishing it. Which of the following situations would best exemplify scaffolding behavior on the part of Anne’s mother?
a. Writing the report for Anne
b. Allowing Anne to finish the report without help, thereby working through her frustration
c. Suggesting Anne talk to a friend about the book’s plot
d. Asking Anne questions about the book’s plot
To say that a young infant’s interaction with the environment is reflexive means that the infant
a. reacts to the environment without having voluntary control over his or her actions.
b. can intentionally respond to the environment through physical and mental actions.
c. can engage in trial-and-error learning without anticipating a specific outcome.
d. can engage in trial-and-error learning in a logical and intentional manner.
When faced with an invisible displacement problem, an infant
a. watches an object being hidden in one location, and then watches as it is moved to a different location.
b. watches an object being hidden in one location, and then the object is secretly moved to a different location.
c. watches two objects being hidden in separate locations, and then watches as the two objects are switched.
d. watches two objects being hidden in the same location, and then one object is secretly moved to a different location.
Research examining Piaget’s theory in a number of different cultures indicates that
a. children seem to pass through Piaget’s stages in the same order and at the same ages worldwide.
b. children seem to pass through Piaget’s stages in the same order, but not necessarily at the same ages, worldwide.
c. all children regardless of cultural background or educational level, eventually attain formal operations.
d. the rates at which individuals achieve formal operations are the same in industrialized and nonindustrialized countries.
The sensorimotor stage lasts from
a. birth until the child can walk.
b. about ages 1 to 4.
c. age 2 until the child starts school.
d. birth until about age 2.
Which of the following is an example of Vygotsky’s concept of private speech?
a. Julie and Jessica are twins who talk to themselves in an imaginary language.
b. Christopher announces to himself that he is going down the slide.
c. Lori tells her son, Mitchell, that his zipper is down.
d. Sarah and Don whisper to each other about the person near them.
When children are learning a new activity, they often talk aloud in order to give support and directions to themselves. Vygotsky referred to this type of “talking aloud” as
a. social speech.
b. private speech.
c. public speech.
d. mental speech.
When children’s thinking is “decentered,” it means that they
a. can’t think about a problem from other people’s perspectives.
b. can usually engage in egocentric thinking.
c. can consider multiple aspects of a problem at the same time.
d. can reverse operations in addition and multiplication problems.
As a young child, Grace felt sorry for the unused ornaments and believed that they felt lonely and forgotten. This is most clearly an example of
d. make-believe play.
When your niece’s toy rolls out of sight under her bed, she immediately begins to search for it. What Piagetian concept does her behavior illustrate?
c. Object permanence
The primary limitation of children’s thinking during the concrete operations stage is that they
a. master the skills of transitivity, reversibility, and class inclusion in a sequential manner.
b. can think logically only about tangible or familiar materials, contexts, and situations.
c. can only engage in deductive reasoning using activities like the pendulum problem.
d. cannot think about process and only see the beginning and end of a problem.
According to Vygotsky, the process of taking external speech and activity and making it internal and mental is called
Children’s understanding that objects and people can belong to more than one category at a time can be observed in their responses to
a. transivity problems.
b. class inclusion problems.
c. conservation problems.
d. the three-mountains task.
According to a constructivist perspective, which of the following statements is TRUE?
a. People perceive the environment as it actually exists and do not make any interpretations.
b. Young children create their own independent interpretations of reality, but adults do not.
c. There is only one reality, and individuals should not differ in their interpretations of it.
d. People interpret their experiences using their already existing knowledge and experiences.
Experts in child development generally agree that the most revolutionary and influential theorist in the study of child development was
a. Theophile Simon.
b. Lev Vygotsky.
c. Jean Piaget.
d. Geoffrey Saxe.
According to Piaget, once an object is out of direct sensory or motor contact with a child in the earliest substage of sensorimotor development, the child
a. develops a primitive physical representation of the object’s texture.
b. does not know or remember anything about the object.
c. remembers the object and is motivated to search for it.
d. cries in an indirect attempt to have the object returned.
The ability to engage in abstract reasoning about hypothetical events that are not directly experienced develops in which of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development?
a. Concrete operations
b. Formal operations