Dr. Rice found that the correlation between children’s amount of sleep and their amount of daytime energy was +.40. This correlation indicates that
a. the more sleep a child gets, the more energy he or she has.
b. sleep and energy are not related.
c. having more energy allows children to get more sleep.
d. the more sleep a child gets, the less energy the child has.
Which of the following theoretical perspectives focuses the LEAST on biological explanations of child development?
a. Ethological theory
b. Behavior genetics
d. Ecological systems
Which of the following correlations would be most likely to reflect the relationship between a child’s age and mathematical skills?
Grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, and friends of the family are all part of Bronfenbrenner’s
Researchers sometimes use animals to study questions related to child development because
a. children younger than six years of age cannot participate in psychological research.
b. it would be unethical to manipulate certain variables of interest in humans.
c. there are no ethical guidelines for conducting research with animals.
d. it is too difficult, time-consuming, and expensive to conduct correlational research.
At first, Josh neither liked nor disliked the song “Hey There, Delilah.” However, one day his girlfriend broke up with him while that song was playing. Now Josh gets sad each time he hears that song. “Hey There, Delilah” has now become
a. a conditioned stimulus.
b. an unconditioned stimulus.
c. a conditioned response.
d. an unconditioned response.
The psychoanalytic personality part responsible for our sense of morality is/are the
d. both the id and the ego.
Freud claimed that the successful resolution of the phallic stage and the Oedipus complex involves
a. curbing one’s hunger.
b. using the bathroom appropriately.
c. copying the same sex parent.
d. the sexual pursuit of one’s peers.
Sometimes a researcher creates a standard situation or environment that allows each child the same opportunity to engage in a specific behavior of interest. This type of research design is called
a. naturalistic observation.
b. structured observation.
c. path analysis.
d. cross-sectional observation.
Lorenz’ concept of imprinting involves
a. unconscious reasons for biological functions.
b. attachment to the first guardian figure found after birth.
c. the impact of classical and operant conditioning on learned behaviors.
d. looking for ways in which individuals process new information.
The extreme feelings of self-consciousness that many adolescents feel may be related to the ________ form of adolescent egocentrism.
a. personal fable
c. imaginary audience
Vygotsky believed that children learn to think primarily by
a. trial and error.
b. conditioning and reinforcement.
c. constructing their own knowledge about the world.
d. internalizing the speech they hear around them.
If Chris and his coworkers work together to design a new ad campaign, they are demonstrating
a. socially shared cognition.
b. guided participation.
c. central participation.
d. situated cognition.
A major distinction between Vygotsky’s theory of development and Piaget’s theory is that the Vygotsky focused more directly on
a. social interaction’s contribution to cognitive growth.
b. cognitive assessment through standardized tasks.
c. different stages of language development.
d. the universality and invariance of cognitive development.
By about ________ months of age, a child can typically solve invisible displacement problems.
When children can use one object to stand for or represent another, they are said to be able to engage in
a. make-believe play.
b. fantasy play.
c. symbolic play.
d. social play.
A primary difference between intuitive thought and logic is that
a. logic is based on a formal system of rules, whereas intuitive thought is based on personal experience.
b. intuitive thought develops in the formal operations stage, whereas logic develops during the preoperational stage.
c. logic is egocentric, whereas intuitive thought involves the ability to take other people’s perspectives into account.
d. intuitive thought is more symbolic and language-based, whereas logic is more artificial and centrated.
Which of the following statements regarding the kinds of information children learn from interaction with the environment during the sensorimotor stage is FALSE?
a. Children may learn about the sounds an object makes.
b. Children may learn about how an object can be manipulated.
c. Children may learn about the object’s surface texture and weight.
d. Children may learn about how one object compares to another.
Providing supportive assistance and guidance to a child learning a new task or developing a skill is called
a. proximal development.
b. assistive reassurance.
d. cognitive synthesis.
Before the child has grasped object permanence, it is fair to say that a child believes which of the following?
a. Easy come, easy go
b. Finders, keepers
c. Out of sight, out of mind
d. What’s mine is mine